ACID PACK 4 WAYS.  

Acid Pack 4-Way 2x is an acidifier that can be added to the drinking water of your herd . It has been found to aid in the prevention of urinary calculi.

 

One must remember that Urinary Calculi is a complex problem, normally created by management issue such as feed, water,hay etc.

 When using the Acid Pack 4-Way 2x the goal is to get the pH of the drinking water to a 5. Our water here at Tri-Quest is around a 7. For us to get our water to a pH of 5 we add 3/4 of a teaspoon of the Acid Pack 4-Way 2x to each gallon of water and this 'treated' water is the ONLY water source for the animals.:

De: Brian Baynton [bbaynton@Alltech.com]
Envoyé: 6 février 2008 16:44
À: Raymond Julien
Cc: Francois Ouellette
Objet: FW: Info

 

Mr. Julien,

 Pease see my answers below.

 Tank you for supporting Acid Pak 4 Way 2X

 Brian

Brian Baynton

Ontario Region Manager 

 


From: Raymond Julien [mailto:rjulien@sympatico.ca]
Sent: Wednesday, February 06, 2008 1:51 PM
To: Brian Baynton
Subject: TR: Info

 

 


Hello Mr. Baynton,

 

I have questions for you.

 

I am using acid pack 4-way and would like to have a few answers to my questions:

 

Can we mix acid pack with vitamins for our pigeons

 

Yes

With Probiotics? 

 

 If the probiotics are Lactobacillus – in other words – acidophilic – then yes you can mix them.  Acid Pak actually contains a probiotic portion as well.

With Antibiotics?............................Yes

 With  Coccidiostats? …………………… Yes 


With  Antiprotozoals…………………………Yes

 With  Antimalarials …………………………I have no experience with these products

 With  Anthelmintics…………………………..Yes

 Remember that Acid Pak is meant to lower the pH in the gut of the bird, but using as directed it does not lower the pH much below 5.5 to 6.  It is used in the early stages of the bird’s life because gut acidity in the young bird is not as acid as a more mature pigeon.  If you consider that these products listed by you all are regularly administered to adult birds, and they have greater gut acidity than the young bird gets when receiving Acid Pak, you can see the reason for the confidence in my answers.  Having said that, you do need to ensure if you are adding these products to an automatic watering system, the Acid Pak will mix with them in the water lines without causing any problems in the delivery system.

 Those questions are very often asked by our members.

 Thank you four your prompt reply.


Raymond Julien, Québec, Canada


From Clint Robertson past CPFA President : 

In addition I use a product called "acid pack 4 way" at a rate of one teaspoon to two and a half gallons of water two to three times a week. This is a product commonly used on young pigs so it can be purchased at most feed companies that supply pig feed. I think this stuff is great. It has a really good smell, keeps the water crystal clear and keeps the proper acidity level in the gut of the pigeons so they can digest properly. The droppings of the birds stay firm and have little odor also. I no longer use chlorine in the water as it also kills the good gut bacteria that allow the pigeon to digest properly and fight off intestinal ailments. In addition to this I worm my birds with Ivomec twice, 21 days apart with the last treatment being a month before I mate up my birds in the spring and I repeat this in the fall after I have completed the breeding season, when all the babies are weaned. I am also very careful not to allow wild or stray pigeons to gain access to my loft, so I have restricted free flying time to when I am there to watch. I also do a flock treatment for canker two weeks before I pair the birds up and may treat again for canker in the hot months, but only if a problem flares up. It is good to note that you can use the "acid pack 4 way" in the water along with any medication you may need to use and it can actually help the meds work more effectively. I am completely convinced that these changes have done wonders for my birds.

 ADENOVIRUS.

Some information from Dr. Wim about Adenovirus:

ED: I’m hearing a lot about a new vaccination against adenovirus. Does it really work?

WIM: There are two kinds of adenovirus, Type I and Type II. The first affects young birds, and the other affects old birds, primarily. There is no true pigeon vaccine yet, although some fanciers are using a chicken vaccine on their pigeons. I have tested this vaccine on pigeons in my laboratory, and I have not found it to be effective. What I recommend for racing pigeons against adenovirus Type I is eight days of Thera Prim along with Tricho Plus. The treatment is against the secondary bacterial infections. We are also seeing a new virus emerging.

ED: What is this new virus?

WIM: It’s called Circo-virus, and it attacks the pigeon’s immune system, with basically the same symptoms as AIDS. So that means that pigeons are dying of all sorts of other diseases, because of a lack of immunity. There is no vaccine yet.

The Flying Vet's Pigeon Health Management by Colin Walker speaks a bit about the virus. According to him there was an outbreak in Belgium in '92 characterized by sudden death of pigeons of all ages. None of the sick birds survived more than 48 hours. It started in a group of young birds and then spread to all ages.The birds had fluid yellow diarrhea and vomiting. The loss in each loft was about 30%. Apparently only immunosuppresed birds were susceptible to the disease, but researchers were not able to assess why the immunosuppression occurred. Birds that were in close contact with sick birds often remained well. There are two types of the virus. Type I mainly affects young pigeons and involves the digestive tract causing diarrhea and vomiting. E coli can complicate this form of the disease. Many of these birds recover. Type 2 involves the liver with death usually occurring in 24 hours. This was the form of the disease in '92 and lastedAdeno virus was a disease of chickens that was thought to have mutated to allow it to adapt to pigeons. The type 2 does not respond to antibiotics. The type 1 with the combined e. coli does well with antibiotics. Secondary infections especially wet canker and coccidia were the most dangerous opportunistic diseases in birds infected by the virus and supportive treatment was necessary till the birds could clear the virus. Symptoms of type I were watery diarrhea, vomiting and occasionally respiratory involvement.

ADENOVIROSES AMONG PIGEONS

When the well-known adenovirus in the past could only be found with young pigeons (adenovirosis type I or “classical adenovirosis”), in more recent years it also occurs with old pigeons (adenovirosis II or “necrotising hepatitis”).

The latter form is much worse than the former because it can cause a lot of death among the old pigeons ; both diseases have become in only a few years two of the main infections among pigeons. Taking into account the enormous impact on our pigeon population and for the sake of our hobby I think it’s useful to examine what we already know about this disease. The obvious questions a pigeon fancier asks are : what are the symptoms and what can I do either to prevent or to treat the disease.

But first of all we’re going into the cause and the course of the disease.

As stated the origin of the disease is an adenovirus ; this virus has been described with several birds ; mostly it doesn’t play an important role in pathological processes except for some diseases, two of which among pigeons. The viruses can easily be located through microscopic examination, on the basis of their typical structure ; it’s very difficult though to isolate (=to breed) them. More than 20 years ago the classical adenovirus type I was found in our regions ; since then it has also been described worldwide. The worse form, the adenovirosis type II has only been found since 1992 (also for the first time in Belgium). The main difference with adenovirosis type I is that also old pigeons can be infected and that the course of the disease is much worse as it causes much more death, while there’s no efficient treatment possible ! It’s a rather frequent disease occurring all through the year.

Adenovirosis type I infects, as stated earlier, especially young pigeons ; the virus is very often introduced in the cote by a strange pigeon or after contact in the travel basket ; it is excreted with the manure and hence can infect the other young. Because the intestinal wall is seriously damaged, germs that normally live in the intestine get the chance to proliferate enormously ; in this way they probably damage the intestinal wall even more and can enter the blood circulation. The typical symptoms of adenovirosis type I are ; the illness occurs very sudden and typical is vomiting heavily, diarrhoea, a very bad condition in general, a large part of the young pigeons are infected (there’s a very fast infection within 3 to 5 days) but mostly only a few pigeons die. Very often it lasts only 5 to 10 days. Additional E.Coli-infections will make the disease last longer ; so it’s of utmost importance to treat these additional E. Coli-infections as quickly as possible ! The recovery of the pigeons that suffered the disease can take some time, probably because of the slowly recovering liver-cells caused by the multiplication of the virus in the liver-cells. It should be taken into account when training the pigeons. Another rare syndrome of the adenovirus type I can be seen with youngs in the nest ; typical is that some pigeons stay behind and only few die.

The virus with adenovirosis type II is capable of causing massive liver necrosis with a characteristic course as a consecuence : there are very few symptoms as the pigeons die within 2 days. The only symptom that is sometimes seen is vomiting and yellow diarrhoea. The number of dead pigeons can sometimes be very high what makes that the disease sometimes develops dramatically. Remarkable is that the pigeons that aren’t infected after about 5 to 6 weeks stay healthy without any kind of symptom.

The possible diagnosis can be made based on the symptoms mentioned above after which an autopsy, if desirable, can give a definite answer through hystologic investigation of the intestinal wall or liver ; in this way you can exclude other diseases such as parathyphoid, hexamythiasis, intoxification, streptococcus, acute Coli-sepsis.

As far as the extermination is concerned : there is no efficient vaccination available. Whenever you find adenovirosis type I with young pigeons, it is absolutely necessary to treat the secondary Coli-infections as fast as possible ; most of the young pigeons are carriers of this germ. Avoiding stress (transport, training, …) is also important. For adenovirosis type II the general rules are hygiene, ventilation, avoiding overpopulation … These are essential to keep the risk of infection as low as possible.

As a conclusion you could say that there is only little information known about these viruses and the origin of these diseases. An important reason is that it’s very difficult to isolate the virus. The fact that old pigeons don’t become ill in case of adenovirosis type I could be explained by a well-formed resistance ; summer young and late young that don’t suffer the disease in their year of birth often expose typical symptoms in the year after ; you will never see this with pigeons that suffered the disease in their year of birth.

As stated in the introduction the impact of both adenoviroses on our pigeon population is enormous ; hence the development of a good vaccine would be more than welcome.

Dr. Carlo Gyselbrecht

e-mail us at info@pigeonparadise.com

 

Lot of very good information by experts : 





http://www.albertaclassic.com/adenovirus.html 

 

http://www.racingpigeonmall.com/loft/articles/adeno-virus.html

 

http://www.racingpigeon.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=89&Itemid=73

 

From Northstar doves:

 

Cause and Symptoms: Only birds whose immune systems are suppressed are vulnerable to this disease. There are two types of Adeno Virus that infect pigeons. Type 1 affects young pigeons primarily and causes vomiting and diarrhea, from which many birds recover. Type 2 is contracted by older pigeons and strikes the liver, with most affected birds dying within 24 hours. Some birds display a fluid yellow diarrhea and vomiting before death. But the main sign is sudden death, occurring within 24 hours of the onset. None of the affected birds live longer than 48 hours. E. coli often accompanies Type 1 ( which is associated with young pigeons ) and complicates the infection, making the diarrhea and vomiting more severe and adding respiratory symptoms. This Type 1 Adeno Virus/E. coli sometimes successfully treated with antibiotics. Cases that are the best managed are those in which the loft environment is good and in which all secondary diseases like canker and coccidiosis are treated so that birds are best able to fight the virus.

Prevention - Adeno virus is always present in a young bird, and it erupts when the immune system or fails. It is important to wait until the 12-th week for any type of vaccination. There is currently no vaccine that is proven to be effective against Adeno Virus. It's also important to keep stress in the loft at a minimum with AntiFungal and Improver and to boost pigeons' general health with vitamin supplements that are already included in Pigeon Vitality products, etc

 

ABNORMAL EGGS

I quite often have questions about pigeon abnormal eggs.

 Here is what I found to help in this situation.  First, I think it is quite important to know the reason behind such a problem,

An odd abnormal egg is not a concern and it is quite
common for hens to throw different shaped eggs with no
problems.

However a run of soft-shelled, rough shelled or
infertile eggs indicates a potential problem.

Causes :-

dietary insufficiency (esp. vitamins A, D3 & calcium)
uterine infections - suspect if eggs are rough shelled
or sludgy in appearance
organochlorines (DDT) produce thin-shelled, fragile
eggs - this is a continuing problem with birds of prey
in the wild but be careful what you use around your
birds
ovary disease - will produce yolkless, small yoked or
infertile eggs
environmental toxins. There are many toxins that can
affect the hen resulting in lowered egg production,
early embryo death or weak chicks. Some common
examples include: crude oil, exhaust fumes, NICOTINE,
organochlorines and antibiotics containing
furazolidone' '

As you can see, nutrition is almost always the
answer!!!

Any comment?,... .

Don't be afraid if you have any question to ask. It is not necessary to write directly to my personal e-mail address..... but if necessary, that's OK with me. My main intend is to help all of you if I can. But there are other very knowledgeable persons in this group!!!

Raymond Julien,
Canada.

ABSCESSES

http://www.wellvet.com/abscessesinbirds.html

Bird abscesses are often within the body and not easily seen, as opposed to abscesses in dogs and cats, which are most often located just under the skin and easily seen. Because of the internal nature of these abscesses, the condition is much more serious in birds, and can be life threatening. Conventional western avian medicine is extremely important in helping diagnose and treat abscesses in birds. However, western medicine alone is not enough. Complementary therapies can hasten the speed of recovery and often may actually make the difference in the full recovery of your bird.

This condition is an excellent example where complementary therapies can be especially helpful in building the immune system, aid in resolving the abscess, and in the strengthening of the bird's other organ functions to help fight off the infection.


ADAPTABILITY OF PIGEONS

Over the years, we have remarked a great possibility of adaptability in pigeons.  They can easily adapt themselves to our conditions. This has been proven in many instances. Whatever you feed them once or twice a day, give them water for a few hours only in winter etc. they will conform to it. Of course, we should also adapt ourselves to their needs ex: breeding time.

Naturally, pigeons are frightened by anything out of the usual, but they also can accustomed to almost everything and gain confidence in many aspect with time.

Pigeons also have the ability to learn and the pigeons adapt themselves to new condition.

It has to be noted that there are great differences between one breed to the other. Ex: Racing Homers vs. Modenas. 

  

ADENOSAN

From Chivita:

Against Young Bird Sickness*       Contains immunoglobulins (IgA, IgG, IgM) to enhance immunity within the gut itself

*       Contains preparations of different crucifers, highly effective against viruses, bacteria and fungi

*       Easily applicable via the feed

*       Highly palatable

When?

How often?

How much?

Yield

At the first signs of sickness (e.g. birds do not react to breader's voice)

5 to 7 days, once a day

1 sachet per 1 kg of feed for 20 pigeons.

12 sachets are sufficient for the daily feed ration of 240 pigeons

Accompanying the treatment against trichomonas

For 7 days, once a day,
starting 3 days before treatment against trichomonas begins

At particular stress (during weaning, after the introduction of strange birds into a loft, before and after vaccination, at an heat outbreak, after training of juveniles, after young bird competitions)

For 3 days, once a day

Note: Application of adenosan via the feed:
Moisten the daily feed ration of 20 pigeons with approximately 10 ml (= 1 spoon) of water, then sprinkle 1 sachet of adenosan on to the feed and mix thoroughly to ensure even distribution. Do
not admix adenosan to water!

 

ADRENAL GLANDS

In times of emergency and stress this hormone is immediately secreted into the blood stream. It accelerates the circulation and may cause problems. A lack of vitamin B may cause more problems

 

ADVICES: (see also tips & advices)

 

Dutch Staf Dusarduyn is a man who has gathered so much wisdom throughout the years from personal experience that the average fancier better listens when he opens his mouth. That's why some good advice by Dusarduyn himself are important.
ADVICE from Staf:

1. Keep everything simple. Believe in good birds and forget much about the rest. In pigeon sport are no secrets or methods to make birds fly faster.
 
2. Do not try to run before you can walk. The mistake many fanciers, especially beginners, make is that they want too much too soon.

3. Forget all about names and strains. Names are made up. By the fanciers themselves or friends in the press. Strains do not exist. There are two kinds of birds: Good ones and bad ones.
Of the first category there are too few, of the second too many.
He started with Delbarblood, that's true. Delbar was a name and he had a strain. But that does not mean much Dusarduyn says.
With other birds he would also have been successful.

4. Be hard. Do not keep birds because the grandfather was good or because it has cost money. Do not hesitate te eat expensive soup now and then. Keeping too many birds is deadly. It's a mistake many people make after they had some successes and can sell birds. There are numerous examples that keeping a mass of birds was the beginning of the end of a great career. The 90 year old himself has seldom raced more than six birds. That must do if they are good enough.

5 Regularity is very important. Especially widowhood cocks do not like surprises. Always be there at the same time. Every day, many methods are good. One method is real bad: To change it again and again.
 
6. When you race long-distance give a bird at least two years the time to mature. Most birds with real long-distance blood are at their best at an older age. Long distance birds are different. The majority cannot win a decent prize at short distance or as a baby. On the other hand most good birds at short distance may be unfit to handle the longer distances.

7. Never enter a good 'one day bird' in a two day race.
Birds which have flown the 'two day races' will never be good 'one day birds' again. They become too smart. They know there will be another day and will take it easy.

8. If you try to be a good racer without any medicine or a vet just forget it. This has become impossible.
On the other hand if you think a vet can make you a champion you will fail too.
9. Mate the best with the best and forget the rest.

10. The loft is very important for the condition of the birds.
A loft is not good because it is beautiful. And if you have ever had good results you will know for the rest of your life that it is not the lofts which are to blame when the results are not so good any more. It is you or the pigeons. So do not change a loft which has proven to be good.
It often happened in the past that fanciers who were successful replaced their simple loft by a fancy one and... they found themselves poor racers from then on. A wll-known example is Huyskens van Riel.
Dusarduyn has not hammered a single nail in his loft for over 50 years. His lofts are still the same as they were half a century ago. Oxygen is of vital importance. No medicine against respiratory problems can compare with oxygen.
 
Selected by Raymond Julien for our members..
 
AFRICAN OIL:
 
Art of Pigeons by Gary Romig
 

 

 

 

AIR SACS DISEASES BY DR" Collin Walker:

Moxidectin - A clear water-soluble wormer that not only eliminates roundworms and hairworms but also eradicates all external parasites (including airsac mites) that feed off body fluid. Readily taken by the birds, there is no need to withhold food. The wormer of choice during racing, breeding and moulting.

The disease, a possible vaccine and treatment


By Dr BSc, BVSc, MRCVS, MACVSc (Avian health)

Mycoplasmas are a group of microorganisms that infect birds, animals and people. There are many different types, with the different types affecting different species of animals and causing different clinical problems. For example, Mycoplasma pneumoniae infects the lungs of humans, Mycoplasma synoviae can infect the joints and respiratory system of chickens, while Mycoplasma gallisepticum is associated with respiratory infection in chickens, pigeons, turkeys and other birds. Different types of Mycoplasma vary in their ability to cause disease. Some cause severe disease with significant mortality rates while others do not cause disease at all and are considered to be normal inhabitants of, for example, the respiratory system. A bird’s response after exposure to Mycoplasma is very much modified by a number of factors, including the bird’s age at exposure, nutritional status, general health and genetic make-up, etc.

In many species of birds, including pigeons and chickens, the upper respiratory tract is invaded and colonized by mycoplasma in early life. Once they are there, they are essentially there forever. Antibiotic courses will reduce their number but not eliminate them. The significance of disease-causing mycoplasma is that, if the birds become run down so that their ability to resist disease is reduced, the mycoplasma will take advantage of this, increase in number and start to cause disease. Typically, in this situation, the mycoplasmas inflame the membranes lining the respiratory tract, causing some primary interference with infected pigeons’ racing performance but more importantly the inflamed membranes become vulnerable to infection with other secondary agents such as bacteria, Chlamydia and yeasts.

In chickens, there is a serious and common disease called Chronic Respiratory Disease (CRD). CRD is a primary mycoplasma infection with a secondary Chlamydial and bacterial (usually E. coli) infection. A vaccine is available to prevent chickens from catching CRD. Vaccines are live Mycoplams strains that can colonise the respiratory tract but have been modified so that they cannot cause disease. Drops of vaccine are placed in young chickens eyes and the hope is that these non-harmful Mycoplasma strains will colonise the respiratory system before the chicken has been exposed to any disease-causing strains. Once the vaccine strains have colonized the respiratory tract, they then exclude other strains, making it impossible for harmful strains to colonise.

In pigeons, usually at a young age, their respiratory systems are colonized by potentially harmful Mycoplasmas. The mycoplasmas then sit there and in many well-managed lofts don’t cause clinical disease. If there are loft factors that interfere with the young maturing pigeon’s ability to resist disease, such as overcrowding, poor hygiene, damp conditions, untreated parasitic disease or poor nutrition, the Mycoplasmas will flare, causing signs associated with respiratory tract infection, such as watery squinty eyes, dirty ceres, a croaking sound when breathing, general weight loss, lethargy, green mucoid droppings and sometimes death. Antibiotics given at these times will improve the birds’ health but do not eliminate the Mycoplasmas. Because of the inherent stresses of racing – time away from the loft, altered feeding and rest patterns, exertion, exposure to predation, etc, Mycoplasmas can flare in race birds. Although race birds can show symptoms similar to youngsters, signs are usually modified and more subtle because the birds are older and have more mature and functional immune systems. Racing pigeons with active Mycoplasma infection, with or without secondary Chlamydial or bacterial infections, are often described as having ‘air sac disease’. In these older birds, the Mycoplasmas inflame the lining of the respiratory tract, including the sinuses, windpipe, lungs and air sacs. This interferes with their breathing. Often in race-aged birds, the only signs observed are increased panting or fatigue after moderate exercise or sometimes just poor results or heavier losses.

Obviously, any disease that saps energy can cause similar symptoms and so it is important for fanciers not to jump to conclusions and say that their birds have air sac disease. Such fanciers find themselves giving antibiotics to no effect. Birds with Coccidia, worms and wet canker will naturally also prematurely fatigue.

And so, how does the racing fancier know if his birds have air sac disease? Unfortunately, there is no quick and easy test. Mucous can be taken from the throat and any Mycoplasma present cultured. There is no point in the lab just growing Mycoplasma unless they can actually identify the type (i.e. the species). They may just be the normal non-harmful variety and are not causing disease. Even if harmful ones are grown, it takes several days and is quite expensive. Also, just because they are there, they may not be causing disease. Pigeons can be autopsied and tissue samples collected for histology (microscopic examination). If this identifies inflammation, particularly if harmful Mycoplasmas are also grown, this confirms the diagnosis. But again, this is time-consuming and expensive. Microscopically examining mucous from the throat will sometimes identify inflammatory cells and secondary bacterial infection, suggestive of a Mycoplasma infection. Microscopic examination of the droppings can identify altered bacterial populations associated with stress. These changes occur with any debilitating condition and are not specific for air sac disease but do at least indicate that the pigeons are run down and possibly sick.

Often during the racing season, when a diagnosis needs to be made and treatment initiated fairly promptly, a tentative diagnosis is based on the signs the birds are showing, inflammatory changes visible on microscopic examination of a throat swab, altered bacterial patterns on microscopic examination of fresh droppings, a failure to demonstrate other conditions like wet canker and coccidia that cause similar symptoms and sometimes a response to treatment.

It is always a matter of correlating the degree of diagnostic effort with the severity of the problem and if the loft is experiencing ongoing problems, swabs should be collected for Mycoplasma culture and ideally a bird, showing symptoms that are representative of the problems in the flock, being submitted for autopsy and histology.

In the longer term, it would be really great if vaccines similar to those available in chickens became available for pigeons. Nestlings could have vaccine drops containing non-harmful Mycoplasma placed in their eyes. These would then colonise their respiratory tracts, preventing infection with disease-causing strains.

Currently, control focuses on avoiding the factors that trigger Mycoplasma flare-ups. During racing, however, this is pretty well impossible and most fanciers can expect flare ups of Mycoplasma -based respiratory infection during the season. Around the world, antibiotic blends containing tylosin (effective against Mycoplasma), doxycycline (the antibiotic of choice for Chlamydia) and sometime spiromycin (also called suanovil, effective against a range of bacteria) are prescribed by veterinarians as required to manage these flare-ups.



Nine hollow areas extend throughout the pigeon’s body. Air flows through this system of interconnected sacs almost like blood in the circulatory system.

AIR SACS MITES

Air Sac Mites by Frank Scandaglia, DVM

The Air Sac Mite, Sternostoma tracheacolum, is a respiratory parasite which is often seen in passerine type birds, causing severe respiratory distress in the affected individuals. The Air Sac Mite can be located anywhere along the respiratory tract of infested birds, whether it be in the region of the paranasal sinuses or the air sacs themselves. Birds which appear to be most severely affected by this parasite are Lady Gouldian Finches and Canaries. Although there have been other various reports of Air Sac Mites infestation in other species of birds, none are affected as much as the Canary and Lady Gouldian Finch.

As far as it is known, the Air Sac Mite lives and reproduces on the epithelial surface of the respiratory tract, including the areas of the paranasal sinuses, trachea, syrinx, bronchi, lungs and air sacs. The complete life cycle of the Air Sac Mite is approximately fourteen to twenty one days. As mentioned earlier this takes place along the surface of the respiratory tract of affected birds. One interesting aspect of the Air Sac Mite life cycle, is that the female is Larviparous, this means that the Nymph stage occurs within the adult female Air Sac Mite, thus the female "gives birth" to Larvae which soon go on to mature into adults. Larvae and adult Air Sac Mites are very motile and can easily move through mucous and other respiratory debris. This is because they are specially equipped with long jointed legs.

Transmission of Air Mite occurs through direct contact via the oral route, from one bird to another. By far, the most common method of Air Sac Mite transmission occurs when infested adult birds feed regurgitated food to young nestlings. Another method of mite transmission occurs during courtship behavior when male canaries can be observed feeding females. Transmission can also occur by drinking water from contaminated water bottles in flight cages.

Clinical signs of Air Sac Mites includes open mouth breathing which has a characteristic clicking sound. Breathing can be severely affected, and some birds can be observed gasping for air. Other signs that may be observed include loss of song, coughing, nasal discharge, vocalization changes, tail bobbing, weakness and weight loss. Death can also occur, and is seen in severely affected birds due to mucous build up and accumulation of other respiratory exudates, leading to the obstruction of the respiratory airways.

Treatment to eradicate Air Sac Mites can be successfully accomplished by the use of a drug called Ivermectin. There are three methods which can be employed to rid infested birds of Air Sac Mites. These include a topical application, injection into the pectoral muscles, and an oral dosing. My own personal preference is the topical application, in which a small drop of the Ivermectin preparation is placed directly on the skin over the area of the right jugular vein. The treatment is repeated again every two weeks for a total of three treatments per bird. Unfortunately, treatment with Ivermectin is not always as rewarding as we would like for it to be. Some heavily infested birds can die five to seven days after treatment with Ivermectin due to Asphyxiation, resulting from the accumulation of dead Air Sac Mites obstructing the air ways.

Diagnosis of Air Sac Mites is based on history, physical examination, clinical signs, treatment response, necropsy and histopathology findings. Air Sac Mites can often be visualized by trans illumination of the trachea with a light source. A light source is gently placed onto the lateral surface of the trachea to facilitate the observation of the mites. Trans illumination will reveal the Air Sac Mites which appear as black dots moving about on the tracheal wall surface. Necropsy findings will often reveal tracheal inflammation, air sacculitis, excess exudate or mucous along the respiratory tract, and the mites themselves which appear as black dots. The Air Sac Mites can also be visualized by low power microscopic examination of tracheal washings or exudate.

Control and prevention of Air Sac Mites includes the employment of non infested foster parents for hatching and rearing eggs of affected birds, and segregating infested birds from healthy birds. Also one word which is worth mentioning in reference to Ivermectin, is that this drug is not approved or labeled for use in pet birds. Consulting with your veterinarian is recommended before you initiate any treatment for your birds since accidental toxicity can occur from the use of Ivermectin as could occur with any drug if used incorrectly. As always consult with your veterinarian before you treat them if you suspect your birds may be affected with any illness or disease.

Frank Scandaglia, DVM is a practicing veterinarian in New York who has been involved with birds most of his life. This article originally appeared in Finch & Canary World magazine.

ALBINO AND PINK EYED Dilute ( By Angelfire) 

 Ok fine, no pigment equals white but why the pink of the eyes?   Is this pink not a color and does it not requires some form of pink pigment?    The answer is simple enough; this pink is actually the reflection of blood in the eye tissue.  Blood carrying oxygen is red in color. As the light reflects through the eye tissue the viewer’s eye will see it as pink.

 

ALBUMEN OF EGG

The albumen of an egg is what is white inside of the egg. It is formed from the layers of secretions of the anterior section of the pigeon’s oviduct during the passage of the egg. It forms around either fertilized or unfertilized egg yolks.  The primary natural purpose of egg white is to protect the yolk and provide additional nutrition for the growth of the embryo when fertilized.

Egg white consists primarily of about 90% water into which is dissolved 10% proteins including albumins, mucoproteins and globulins. Unlike the yolk, which is high in lipids (fats), egg white contains almost no fat, and carbohydrate content is less than 1%.

ALLERGY:

How many times have we heard: ‘‘One of my best pigeon was found dead in my loft, he probably died from a heart attack!’’

You should know that allergy is an important problem in our society. It is now proven that the same apply in our pigeons.

Let’s have a look on what Dr. Zsolt Talaber tells us in one of his artcles:

“Allergy to drugs, pollen, proteins etc. also exist in our pigeons even if this is not public knowledge.

Allergy to drugs, first of all to ANTIBIOTICS (Which is becoming increasingly widespread) can be responsible for many unexplained deaths in our pigeons.

One pigeon in a loft can become seriously ill even if the other birds remain healthy, what is more important, it may die immediately.”

There is not much to do about this problem that will increase in the years to come.  The uses of antibiotics will surely contribute to this situation. On the other hand in improving the immune system of our pigeons, it will help.


By the way, I also have had big problems with cedar shaving a few years ago. In that summer, the weather went close to 100F many days in a row and all my young babies at that time were put on cedar shaving. Many among them got a kind of allergy, had difficulty to breath and a few died before I knew it was because of the cedar shaving. I no longer use cedar shaving in my lofts!
 

 

ALOE  VERA

Hi all,

Again here is the complete information about Aloe Vera: I used it since last
spring in my lofts with very good result...:


A part of this article has been written by Gordon Chalmers from Canada

You can find more about it in the new great book call `Vets tips for Fanciers'

The question is: What is Aloe Vera and what benefits does it have for pigeons?

Aloe Vera is a natural source of trace and micro elements and it's main quality
is that it strengthens the immune system and hastens recovery after illness.

The world in which we and our pigeons must live is an over polluted world. Most
medicines which we benefit from are artificial. Feed originates from
over-fertilized agricultural lands. In the majority of regions, the drinking
water that we give to pigeons every day does not contain the necessary elements
but contain nitrites, hormones and other excellent….poisons…!

In such circumstances, we cannot successfully protect the health of our pigeons
by the use of ever more artificial medicines. It is a wonder that they could
stand it so long.
Aloe Vera liquid provides a natural source of minerals, vitamins and amino acids
to assist in overall health and well being.
Have a look on the a wide range of vitamins, amino acids enzyme and minerals in
Aloa Vera:
Minerals; potassium, calcium, magnesium, iron, phosphorus, electrolyte salts.
Vitamins; A, C, Niacin, Riboflavin (B²) Thiamine (B¹, B6, B¹²)
Amino acids; alanine, arginine, aspartic, glutamic, histidine, isoleucine,
leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, praline, serline, threonine,
tyrosine,valine. Enzymes; amylase, cellulose, lipase, glucose oxidase,
bradykinase, catalase, Creatine phosphokinase, lactic dehydrogenase, serum
glutamic-pyruvic, transaminase.

Aloe Vera Aloe Vera is an extract from the leaves of the plant Curacao
(Barbadensis) aloe. The leaf is smooth and rubbery to touch and inside is the
Aloe Vera "Gel" that is so highly regarded. Aloe Vera is one of the oldest
medicinal plants in history, and according to Hindu legend came directly from
the Garden of Paradise. The ancient Assyrians, Babylonians, Egyptians and Jews
endowed this remarkable plant with holy virtues. For centuries it has been
surrounded by folklore about its wide range of benefits and healing powers, and
known deservedly as the 'holy herb'. Modern Herbalists are still recommending it
for similar complaints, especially skin healing.
With regards to Aloe Vera, too, we can say that natural substances seem to be
regaining their value.

Furthermore, brushing the pigeon legs with aloe vera can cure inflammation and
ulcer on the feet.

We should keep Aloe Vera in the medicine cabinet of our pigeons and in our own
as well.

Tips: We should use the pure gel form of Aloa vera (96% pure aloe extract) This
is a natural substance and cheapest in this form. The Daily dose for pigeon is
0.5 ml per pigeon or 10 ml per liter of drinking water. Dr. Chalmers write: 0. 5 ml
per pigeon daily OR 10ml (2 tea spoon) in a liter of water (1/4 of gallon). It
will have to be corrected.

This old product in now recognized as being one among the best for our pigeons
right now and if it is not sell by almost all pigeon pet supplies now, be sure
it will be in a very near future. Best way possible to remove antibiotics in our
pigeon cabinets.

Raymond Julien
Canada.

ANTWERP PIGEON.

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AMOXYCILLIN


Description: Amoxicillin is a semisynthetic analog of penicillin with a broad range of bacterial activity against many gram + and gram - bacteria.
  • Usage: Amoxicillin can be used with any bacterial infection showing susceptibility to the drug.
  • Adverse reactions: None seen with any frequency.
  • Dosage: 25 - 50 mg/Bird divided daily or 1500 - 3000 mg/gallon of water for 10 - 14 days.
  • Comments: Amoxicillin is very effective, well absorbed, safe, and well tolerated in the pigeon.

  • AMERICAN ROLLER:
     


     

    AMERICAN SHOW RACER:


     AMINO ACIDS

    Amino acids play central roles both as building blocks of proteins and as intermediates in metabolism. The 20 amino acids that are found within proteins convey a vast array of chemical versatility. The precise amino acid content, and the sequence of those amino acids, of a specific protein, is determined by the sequence of the bases in the gene that encodes that protein. The chemical properties of the amino acids of proteins determine the biological activity of the protein. Proteins not only catalyze all (or most) of the reactions in living cells, they control virtually all cellular process. In addition, proteins contain within their amino acid sequences the necessary information to determine how that protein will fold into a three dimensional structure, and the stability of the resulting structure. The field of protein folding and stability has been a critically important area of research for years, and remains today one of the great unsolved mysteries. It is, however, being actively investigated, and progress is being made every day.

    As we learn about amino acids, it is important to keep in mind that one of the more important reasons to understand amino acid structure and properties is to be able to understand protein structure and properties. We will see that the vastly complex characteristics of even a small, relatively simple, protein are a composite of the properties of the amino acids which comprise the protein.

    For more information:

     The Chemistry of Amino Acids:

     http://www.biology.arizona.edu/biochemistry/problem_sets/aa/aa.html

     http://www.toploft.com.au/beyer1.htm

     http://www.birdhealth.com.au/bird/pigeon/race-feeding.html


     

    Here is what the National Pigeon Association tells us about Amino acids

    In the mid twentieth century there were only a few known amino acids. The first amino acid was discovered in 1806 by the French chemist Louis-Nicolas Vauquelin and Pierre Jean Robiquet when they isolated a compound in asparagus that proved to be asparagine, the first amino acid to be discovered. Since that time, more and more amino acids have been discovered. Science has since expanded its knowledge of the various amino acids and how they function. In pigeons raising we do not often think about this but it is important to our discussion that we be as complete as possible. Essential amino acids are "essential" not because they are more important to life than the others, but because the body does not synthesize them, making it essential to include them in one's diet in order to obtain them. A quote from Dr.Richard Cryberg, PhD.,

    "(The) % protein is far less important than having a protein that has balanced amino acids. There are some 22 amino acids that are called essential. This means that the pigeon can not make these amino acids from other amino acids so they must be in the diet. They must be in the diet in about the right ratio to the other essential amino acids. Any essential amino acid that is totally missing will eventually lead to a dead bird. Any essential amino acid that is there in too high a ratio relative to the other essential amino acids is wasted. The bird will metabolize it for energy but it makes a lot of nitrogen waste and puts a load on the kidneys. So the balance of amino acids is important."

    After the four main components, protein, fat, carbs, and fiber we have to consider that our birds will not get all the vitamins and minerals that they will need. To compensate for this we can provide them with vitamin supplements, usually in their water, and grit. Grit, especially with crushed oyster shells, will provide most all the missing trace minerals in a pigeons diet.


    THE NEW ALTERNATIVE TO THE WELL KNOWN VITA KING "VITA-PRO COMBO"

    Pro-Vit Plus is a concentrated combination of electrolytes, amino acids, essential vitamins and probiotics.

    The probiotics act naturally to help correct the microflora balance in the gut which intern, strengthens the birds resistance against infections and illness due to pathogenic bacteria. Pro-Vit plus is also effective in prevention of scouring and disease in young birds and naturally improves their growth and fitness.

    Recommended Uses of Pro-Vit

    During Breeding - every other day throughout the breeding season and twice a week during off months.

    During Racing - day of return plus the last 3 days before shipping birds to race up to noon the day of shipping.

    Recommended Dosage - 1 level teaspoon per 4 litres of water.

      AMPROL

    Description: Amprolium is a chemical that is very similar to thiamine in structure. It is a coccidiostatic by substituting for thiamine during the coccidia life cycle.

  • Usage: As a coccidiostat.
  • Adverse reactions: None that are common.
  • Dosage: 1 teaspoon per gallon (20% powder) for 3 - 5 days. 6 - 12 ml/gallon (9% solution) for 3 - 5 days.
  • Comments: Amprolium is highly effective, can be mixed with other drugs, and doesn't seem to affect performance. It is considered by many to be the drug of choice for coccidiosis. Vitamins should not be used during treatment, but recommended by many after treatment

  • ANATOMIE Of a Pigeon from diversity loft  

     

     

     

     

     

    ANEMIA

    Most of the time caused by a vitamin deficiency.

    ANESTHESIA

    Most of the time, pigeons sleep very lightly. It’s very rare to see a pigeon with his eyes closed.  Pigeons can be put to sleep with various anesthetics. It is very dangerous to use anesthetics in pigeons. Only the best vets can do it.

    ANUS

    See cloaca ( the cloaca is the emptying place for several system. The foos excrements is passed directly to the exterior through the anus.)

    First of all, for breeding purposed, it should ALWAYS been clean.

    ANTIBACTERIALS:

    From: Gordon A Chalmers, DVM :

    Baytril ( Enrofloxacin): This is a "best choice" for treating paratyphoid (salmonellosis). Baytril is a broad spectrum antibiotic with excellent penetrance into different tissues. Dose: 5 mg per pigeon per day in divided doses; 250 mg per gallon (4 liters). When treating paratyphoid, treat for 10 days.

    NOTE : Baytril tablets do not dissolve in water. Use only water-soluble liquid when flock treating in water. Tablets are fine for individual bird treatment - 1/2 of a 15 mg tablet twice daily.

    SaraFlox (Sarafloxacin hydrochloride): Similar to Baytril, it is available as a water-soluble powder marketed for poultry. Available in 5.1 oz (15 gm) packets.

    Dose : 1 tsp per gallon (4 liters).

    Amoxicillin : An excellent broad spectrum antibiotic. Often good against Salmonella, E. coli, Strep. & Staph. species of bacteria.

    Dose : 50 mg per pigeon per day in divided doses. 3 grams (3000 mg) per gallon (4 liters). Treat for 5-10 days.

    Cephalexin : Another excellent broad spectrum antibiotic. Use like amoxicillin; it has a slightly broader anti-bacterial spectrum than amoxicillin. Dosed same as amoxicillin.

    Trimethoprim/sulfa : A good combination product, when bacteria are sensitive to it. We are seeing more resistant bacteria to this drug.

    Dose : 30 mg per pigeon per day – 1500 mg per gallon (4 liters) for 7-14 days.

    Nitrofurans (NFZ, Furacin, etc.): A broad spectrum antibacterial, with some anti-coccidial properties. Seems to work better in a test tube than it does in the pigeon. Not one of my favorites, but sometimes useful.

    Dose : 1 tsp NFZ per gallon (4 liters) for 5-7 days.

    Erythromycin (Gallimycin): A narrow spectrum antibiotic. Use limited to respiratory infections, especially those caused by Mycoplasma species. Difficult to achieve blood levels because crop bacteria break it down readily.

    Dose : 50 mg per pigeon per day - 1.5 to 3 grams per gallon (1500 - 3000 mg per 4 liters of water) for 7-10 days.

    Lincomycin : Similar to Erythromycin. Same dosage.

    Tylosin : Similar to, but generally more effective than Erythromycin and Lincocin. Dosed same as Erythromycin. It is very effective against coryza (respiratory infections) when combined with tetracyclines (use a full dose of each).

    Tetracyclines [Tetracycline, Chlortetracycline (Aureomycin);

    Oxytetracycline (Terramycin): Most effective against respiratory infections - especially when combined with t ylosin. Occasionally these antibiotics will control more serious infections - but only a low percentage unless an antibiotic sensitivity has confirmed their effectiveness.

    Dose : 60-75 mg per pigeon per day – 600 -1500 mg per 4 liters for 7-14 days.

    Doxycycline : Another tetracycline - listed separately because birds eliminate it more slowly, allowing for less frequent administration and lower dosages.

    Dose : 10-50 mg per pigeon per day – 500 -1000 mg per 4 liters of water. Excellent antibiotic.

    NOTE: When using tetracyclines, remove calcium sources such as grit, oyster shell, mineral, etc., since the calcium ties up the drug and makes it unavailable.

      

    ANTIBIOTICS.

     

    Oh, let's not forget that we should also understand the difference between a drug and an antibiotic. Yes, yes, I can already hear the smart remarks. Well, an antibiotic is by most considered a drug, but a drug is not necessarily an antibiotic! An antibiotic works by suppressing the immune system, a drug per se does not affect the immune system at all. So you see there is a real difference. There are hundreds of fanciers misusing antibiotics like Baytril. They attempt to use this 3rd generation antibiotic as a performance enhancer. That is, you use the product, it suppresses the immune system, then as the birds come off it there is a slingshot effect as the immune system seems to go beyond the norm, and bingo, super health. Or is it? No, actually a sure-fire ticket to disaster! Do not use these mega antibiotics unless you have done adequate testing with your avian vet! In most cases less extreme older antibiotics will more than serve your pigeons' health needs.

     

    NOTE: I acknowledge that proper application of medications, is preferable to allowing pathogens to colonize our birds, however, even when used as directed, many medications will cause some damage to the villi and we need to acknowledge this possibility in order to best select the methods by which we manage our bird's health. Are all medications and antibiotics equally as harsh on the villi? Not at all, but do we know which are safer and which are not? The point, is to take a risk assessment and to take steps to minimize the potential for irreversible damage to our birds.

    ANTIBIOTICS more about them:  

    Antibiotics – Don't Use Them.
    By: Alan Wheeldon

    Email: alan.wheeldon@btinternet.com

     

     

    The use of antibiotics by pigeon fanciers should be banned. Pigeon fanciers don't know what they are doing when it comes to treating pigeons with antibiotics, and what is worse; they are causing untold damage.

    Typically, most fanciers look at the pigeon's symptoms, guess what the disease is, they guess what to treat the disease with, and they guess what dose to use. Pigeon fanciers don't know how, or when, to use antibiotics properly. They give their pigeons antibiotics to treat diseases caused by viruses.

    Antibiotics do not kill viruses. The reason given for using antibiotics for viral infection, is to prevent the secondary infection caused by opportunistic bacteria. The truth is that the antibiotics cause the appearance of the opportunistic bacteria in the first place.

    All the good pigeon friendly bacteria are killed, leaving way for the antibiotic-resistant bacteria that cause disease, to move in. Fanciers will, in ignorance, give antibiotics for almost anything; paramyxovirus, adenovirus, herpes, coccidiosis, hexamita, even worms.

    Antibiotics are no good against any of these ailments but as soon as there is anything wrong, pigeon fanciers are off to get the 'yellow powder' to put in the water. A bloke down the pub can get hold of some, the corn merchant can get some, a mate down the pigeon club has got some in a cardboard box at home.

    How much do they put in the water.........who knows? What exactly is the 'yellow powder'.......who knows? How strong is this magic powder......who knows? How long should they give the yellow powder for....who knows?

    Even when the cause of the problem really is bacterial they use the wrong antibiotics for the wrong bacteria. For example, there is really only one antibiotic effective against the worst strains of Salmonella, but does the average fancier know that......?

    In fact does the average pigeon fancier know anything about antibiotics. Well let's find out. Here's a test. Go down the pigeon club and ask if anyone knows the correct antibiotic for Chlamydia. Then ask them what the symptoms are for Salmonellosis, and how they can tell it from Chlamydia.

    Then ask them what is the difference between, 'Auremycin', 'Ornicure' and 'Terramycin'. Ask them, for how long they should administer Enrofloxacin? I suspect that none will know the answers, and yet I bet that most have used antibiotics at some time......for something.

    To be sure of totally, and effectively eradicating bacterial infection, most antibiotics should be administered for 14-21 days. How many fanciers have the knowledge, or even the patience to keep up that treatment? Some just add the antibiotic powder to the water for just 2-5 days.

    This is not long enough. Any recovery they see in their pigeons is happening in spite of the antibiotics. The pigeon is fighting the infection primarily on it's own. Furthermore, what is remarkable, is that to get antibiotics to treat humans, you need a prescription from the doctor.

    You can't just buy them for yourself at the chemists. This is to limit their inappropriate and indiscriminate use. Similarly if you want antibiotics to treat your dog or cat you need firstly to have the pet examined by a vet. But access to antibiotics to treat pigeons seems to be under no such control.

    Antibiotics can very easily be obtained within pigeon circles, usually from someone who buys them when they go abroad, where controls are less vigorously enforced. Even when fanciers obtain antibiotics legitimately, from a reputable vet, and follow the instructions to the letter, it can still turn out to be a complete waste of time and money.

    Evidence? In Holland, at the University of Utrecht, all the antibiotics sold for treating pigeons were evaluated, and the doses recommended by the manufacturer were compared with their effectiveness at killing bacterial infections. They found that only 3 of the recommended dosages out of 60 formulations marketed were correct.

    It was concluded that the majority of treatments are unlikely to work. The reason for this is that the so-called pigeon antibiotics were never developed for pigeons. They were first developed for humans, then adapted for farm animals like pigs and chickens, and for common pets like cats and dogs.

    Few, if any, trials have been carried out on pigeons. It's no wonder the manufacturers have to guess the dose. The antibiotics are not even administered on an individual basis to the pigeons. Fanciers just throw some powder into the drinkers.

    So how much is each pigeon getting? How much will the pigeon absorb? Will it achieve blood levels high enough to kill the bacteria? Will the pigeon's metabolism break down the antibiotic and excrete it before it can work? If you give too much is it toxic?

    None of these questions have been answered. The Dutch study concluded that if all the antimicrobials sold for treating pigeons had to be registered under the Dutch medicines act 1985 they would nearly all be rejected because of poor pharmacokinetics and bacteriological efficacy.

    To make things worse, fanciers are even giving antibiotics when there are no symptoms, just in case! So what, you might ask, it can't do any harm........can it? It most certainly can! The indiscriminate use of antibiotics is about to cause the biggest disaster that has hit the pigeon world.......ever.

    Let me explain to the irresponsible scribes in the fancy press that keep extolling the virtues of antibiotics, and I include all the qualified vets in that category......if we don't stop using antibiotics a new killer superbug will evolve. A bug so resistant that it will chomp up any antibiotic that we throw at it.

    All life on two legs will become plagued by untreatable life threatening bacterial infection, and that includes the pigeon fancier as well. Scare mongering? I think not. I'm not the only one who is thinking along these lines. Let me tell you a story.

    In America the Federal Drug Agency has banned the use of antibiotics by American poultry farmers. The reason.........new antibiotic resistant bacteria are springing up that cause untreatable gastric illness in chickens........and yes, in humans. But that's only just a one off isn't it.............wrong! In hospitals, doctors and nurses are at the moment fighting an uphill battle.

    The cause is MRSA Methicillin-resistant Staphlococcus Aureus. If a patient coming out of an operation gets the bug it can dramatically reduce their chances of survival. Patients are dying, not because of their illness or surgery, but because of septicaemia.

    All patients being moved between hospitals have to be screened for this potentially deadly bacteria, and if someone is carrying it, they go straight into isolation, because once this bug gets out into the ward there is very little out there to kill it. It is resistant to nearly all known antibiotics.

    It's rapidly becoming untreatable! Furthermore, two million people a year die of Tuberculosis, one new person per second is contracting the disease. But that's not a problem in Britain is it........? Yes I'm afraid so. 70-100 people entering Heathrow airport a year are detected as having TB.

    They are X-rayed and given treatment to prevent the spread into the large cities like London, but people still slip through. In America they are taking the threat of a TB epidemic very seriously. In 1997 in New York they spent 1 billion dollars to try to control the spread of the disease.

    But TB is easy to clear up.....isn't it? Wrong!.....a person with TB has to take 6-7 antibiotics per day for SIX months to be sure of recovery. Why so many antibiotics, for so long? TB has evolved to become resistant.

    It is now known as Multi drug-resistant Tuberculosis......MDRTB, and because of that, many classes of antibiotics have to be taken to make sure that that the sufferers are using at least one antibiotic that's effective. However the list of effective antibiotics that can be used to fight TB is getting shorter.

    The reason? Over-prescribing and over-use of antibiotics. In the past doctors were so keen to give out antibiotics they treated them like sweets. If you went to the doctor with a cold you were given......antibiotics. If you went there with a cough you were given.....antibiotics.

    Sure they killed some bugs but the bacteria that were resistant were left untouched, and suddenly with all the other bacteria out of the way they didn't have any competition. They multiplied and filled the spaces left by the good bugs.

    Does this scenario sound familiar to anyone. Read any of the pigeon journals. There is always some scribe telling everyone to use antibiotics for something. One of them proclaimed that as soon as his pigeons looked a bit off, he'd give them antibiotics. Well if he sticks to that regime soon his pigeons will look more than just a bit off.....their droppings will be liquid, they will be throwing up, losing weight and falling over......dead.

    He is creating just the right conditions for Antibiotic-Resistant Salmonellosis......ARS......and he is one, because if such a bug gets out and invades the poultry industry we will have to kill all our pigeons. Surely the Ministry of agriculture fisheries and foods (MAFF) wouldn't make us do that would they?

    All I can say to that is BSE........over 100,000 cattle slaughtered to prevent the spread of the disease. Porcine swine fever.........tens of thousands of pigs killed to contain the infection. In the sixties Foot and mouth disease.........212,000 cattle, 108,000 sheep and 114,000 pigs slaughtered, need I go on.

    The MAFF are unlikely to risk the destruction of the billion pound poultry industry, so that a few people can race pigeons. Remember, it was the MAFF that proclaimed paramyxovirus a notifiable disease in pigeons, and instigated compulsory vaccination to prevent the spread to poultry farms. So they have the power.

    So, is the appearance and spread of a superbug just fantasy? Well, let us just look around. In the 1940's penecillin could easily destroy the bacteria that causes meningitis, well today, in the United States, due to over prescribing, three quarters of the meningitis causing bacteria are resistant to it. Now outbreaks of meningitis have never been so high.

    In Greece where antibiotics are available over the counter over half of all the bacteria in circulation are resistant to treatment. In the bird world, in Kenya where antibiotics are added to chicken feed, chicken guts now are full of bacteria totally resistant to tetracycline.

    Exactly how serious is the situation? Well, in Madagascar a single strain of plague bacillus is now resistant to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, kanamycin, tetracycline,and the sulphonamides. Yes I'll repeat that.....PLAGUE. We are not talking acne here......this is plague. If that gets out we are in real trouble.

    More frighteningly, once the superbugs move in there is no shifting them, you're stuck with them for life. Evidence? In Norway a broiler farm was hit by Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci, VRE, due to the use of antibiotics in the feed. They killed all the chickens, stripped down the whole place, scrubbed it out completely with bleach and germicides.

    They put in new stock from a clean hatchery and within three weeks all the new chickens had VRE. It only takes the ingestion of one resistant bacteria and before long there are millions of them. There are over one million bacteria in the guts of a pigeon.

    There are about two million pigeons in Britain. That's two billion bacteria.......luckily most of them friendly. But if pigeon fanciers keep using antibiotics, they will wipe out all the friendly bacteria, and guess what will move into their place.......the antibiotic resistant ones....the killers.

    So if you get an antibiotic resistant strain in your loft, you will probably never be able to race again. You will have to kill all of your birds in the loft assuming they haven't died already, burn down the loft, and move. Even that will only work if you are not a carrier.

    Perhaps you don't use antibiotics. Well don't think that because of that you are safe. If someone down your club does use them, and his pigeons carry an antibiotic resistant strain of bacteria, and your pigeons go into the same race crate, they will share the same drinker, stand in the same droppings, and eat the same food off of the floor during a holdover.

    The process of infestation by an antibiotic-resistant strain of bacteria can be very rapid as the entire bacterial population in the guts of a pigeon can be completely replaced in as little as 20 minutes.

    So what is the solution. Stop using antibiotics, stop reading articles proclaiming the use of antibiotics, tell your mates to stop using them, stop buying antibiotics, and don't let your vet give you any antibiotics, get rid of any pigeons that are persistently sick and let your loft build up it's own natural immunity. Only then, will pigeon racing, and probably mankind, have a safer future.

    Naaa!.....I hear you say.......this is all in the future it won't bother us now. Well just open up your pigeon paper and see the new 'service' that is being offered by the vets...........antibiotic-sensitivity testing!........The bacteria found in pigeon droppings have started to become antibiotic-resistant! So watch out pigeons.......the superbugs are on their way!

    1

     

    http://www.pigeoncote.com/vet/formulary/formulary.html

     

    ANTIBIOTICS FOR PIGEON YES OR NO?

     We have heard a lot of information about antibiotics, antibiotic sensitivity, theory and interpretation. All of this is purely academic if we do not roll up our sleeves and get the foundation fixed. The industry will continue to search for alternations to drug use, preventive methods, normal gut floras, and improvement in genetic stocks, but all these doctorals can not obviate the legitimate need for a good therapeutic agent. We must work in cooperation with agencies to help them become more knowledgeable on the industry and their allied industries to succeed. We need to form alliances with our poultry industry to work to our common goal of pathogen and vector control towards food safety.  Scott Gillingham, BSC DVM Diploma ACPV

     Antibiotics are used to treat infection due to bacteria. They are also used prophylactically to prevent postoperative infection or infection of implants or damaged heart valves when bacteremia is anticipated.

    Antibiotics work less effectively because bacteria evolve quickly, gain resistance, and can share that resistance amongst them.

    Bacterial illnesses require antibiotics. Non-bacterial illnesses should NOT get antibiotics, but many people want them to "treat" colds, even though they do no good.

    I don't like the practice of factory farming, and feeding our beef and poultry antibiotics, and there's no good reason that I know of to spray them on fruits and veggies. That reminds me to plant a garden this year.

    Many antibiotics have already become ineffective for a lot of infections. This means that infections get more difficult to treat, and require stronger antibiotics or combinations of antibiotics. If all antibiotics stopped working, we'd be back to 1800's conditions, with more deaths caused by pneumonia and other infections that we can treat now.

    Source(s):I'm a physician.

    In my last post I wrote: ‘‘In the very interesting articles I read lately
    about antibiotics, all veterinarians do not recommend
    them for a preventive use (of course....) and one vet
    explain what might happens when we use them.’’

    Here is Dr. Lanneau has to say about antibiotics:

    To this question asked to him: ‘’I have heard people suggest a preventive treatment of antibiotics before breeding season. Do antibiotics have a preventive effect, or do only vaccines have one?’’

    When you give medication like antibiotics, this will only help if the pigeons are ill, and will not prevent any disease at all! An antibiotic do not sense when the body is clean, when there are no intruders in the body; it cannot do anything, when there are no intruders in the body; it cannot do anything, because it only works inside the body, and never prevent enemies from coming in.

    IF YOU FAILED TO VACCINATE YOUR PIGEONS, POISON THEM WITH ANTIBIOTIC.’’

     

    http://giesecke-world.de/picjanl/Jan%20antibiotics.pdf

      

    ANTIBODIES


    It is quite surprising to see how antibodies work. An antibodies against one  disease are seldom able to fight another one. The bodies build up defenses to fight bacterias and viruses in many different ways. The body develops antitoxins which counteract the toxins produced by the bacteria’s. The bodies have the ability to develop those antitoxins

     

    ANTIMALARIALS ( From Dr. Collin walker) .

     

    These drugs, at the doses given only suppress Haemoproteus and are not curative. They may be curative against Plasmodial malaria in pigeons. This is an acute syndrome causing acute anemia. Antimalarials must be dosed for 28 days prior to racing to fully suppress Haemoproteus. Follow up, through the races, with treatment 1-2 days each week.

    Primaquine (Aralen) : Irregularly available. 1-2 tablets per gallon for 10-21 days before the race season, the 1-2 days weekly.

    Quinacrine (Atabrine): 200 mg per 4 litres. 1½ - 3 tablets per 4 litres for 10-21 days, then 1-2 days each week.

    Chloroquine : 500 mg per 4 litres.

     

     APPLE CIDAR VINEGAR:

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    Ancient cultures used vinegar for its medical benefits and it was used for healing bruises, disinfecting wounds, snake and insect bites.  Vinegar is antiseptic which kills germs on contact and also antibiotic. Pure Apple cider vinegar contains over thirty important nutrients, a dozen minerals, more that half a dozen vitamins and essential acids and several enzymes, which makes apple cider vinegar a substance that contains many outstanding qualities that are beneficial to you and to your pigeons. .

    More news on ACV

    Following our last discussion on ACV, Dr. Zsolt Talaber gives us an answer:

    “Real apple cider vinegar is a natural substance, but only if from a bio farm. It strengthens the immune system, as it is an excellent source of trace and micro elements. However, this is only true of vinegar derived from apples grown in natural environment FREE OF CHEMICAL fertilizers and insecticides. An apple that is artificially cultivated does not undergo real ripening, and so does not contain the biologically complete stock of micro elements and organic acids of which it is genetically capable. Real apple cider vinegar is an ideal source of organic acid. Organic acids help digestion and the breaking down of food intake, and thus prevent the development of illnesses caused by undigested food. It is also widely known that acidity prevents the spread of coli bacteria and salmonellas. The acidification of drinking water is an economical procedure, allowing us to spare ourselves a lot of antibiotics treatments, which is not only beneficial financially but also environmentally and from the perspective of our own health. What is less well known is that real apple cider vinegar can be-life-saving’’

    APPLE CIDER VINEGAR Once a week, 1 to 2 tablespoons of ACV to a gallon water for good gut PH at a level that bacteria, such as Salmonella and E Coli

    A BELIEVER

    A very knowledgeable scientist once stated that systematic spraying the walls with slightly vinegarish water is far more effective than whitewash like so many do.

    Those that know my articles or me must have noticed I am sceptical on most  additives that are promoted so aggressively in the media.

    Once I believed in yoghurt and buttermilk as a means to stop Adeno coli (young bird disease) but I lost confidence.

    I never believed in vinegar either.

    But after many discussions with vets and scientists and after I met that guy that had hardly any problems with Adeno and canker since he put vinegar and garlic in the drinker frequently I began to doubt and turned into a believer, since I cannot imagine they are all wrong about products that are not profitable for them. 


    New receipe from   : Guilio Marcoccia

    Two Tablespoons of Apple Cider Vinegar, 1/4 Teaspoon of Acidified Copper Sulfate, and 1 or 2 fresh cloves of garlic crushed to 1 Gallon of water.  The Apple Cider vinegar fights intestinal bacterial infections, and so does the garlic.  Garlic is "natures antibiotic", as well as a blood purifier and a natural wormer.  The Acidified Copper Sulfate fights canker causing organisms in the crop.  I give my pigeons this mixture at least two times a week.  Try this mixture (3) days in a row, and then twice a week afterwards.  You will be amazed at the way the droppings firm up immediately



     ARCHANGEL PIGEON


     Color Pigeon Art by Gary Romig

      

    ARTIFICIAL INSEMINATION;;

    Best way to have information:

    Videos;

    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ba_BgCCtXa4


    Other informations:

    http://www.bifs.be/Insemination.aspx?lang=en

    ARTIFICIAL INCUBATION AND HAND-RAISING

    By Dr BSc, BVSc, MRCVS, MACVSc (Avian health)

    With breeding about to start, we all know that sometimes things don’t proceed as smoothly as we might like. An abandoned egg or youngster can be a particularly frustrating experience for a fancier, particularly if it is from one of the more important pairs. For many of us, the only available option to try and save the youngster is to foster it under another pair. To have any real chance of success, however, there should be no more than 48 hours, and preferably 24 hours, difference in the reproductive cycle between the foster pair and donor egg or youngster. Of course, such a pair is not always available. This situation need not necessarily mean that the youngster will be lost.

    In the past, if a foster pair was not available for an incubated egg or a young nestling, it was not considered practical to raise the chick independently. However, with the availability of relatively inexpensive incubators and nutritious artificial hand-raising diets, it really becomes the fancier’s choice as to whether or not he wants to save the youngster by taking over the role of egg incubation or rearing of the chick.

    The situation is eased somewhat if the egg has not been incubated. If development has not started, the egg does not need to be kept warm to remain viable. Eggs can be stored for several days waiting for a foster pair to lay. Eggs should be stored in a cool, dry place with the pointed end up at approximately a 45?q angle and turned at least twice daily (alternating left and right). Once the foster pair lays, the stored egg can be placed under them and development will commence.

    If no foster pair is available, artificial incubation should be considered. A number of ‘hobby’ incubators are available (with readily available brands being Brinsea, Novital, Multiquip and Masalles) through a number of outlets. Prices vary depending on the amount of automation but it is possible for between AUD$500 and AUD$1000 to buy one that not only maintains the correct temperature and humidity but also turns the egg. The temperature and humidity parameters used for chickens work well in pigeons (and indeed most bird species). Temperatures of 37.2 – 37.5?qC and humidity levels of 55 – 60% are suggested. Automatic turning devices will turn the egg up to 25 times per day. Incubation procedures for the bulk of the incubation period are relatively straightforward and rely only on regular turning and the maintenance of adequate temperature and humidity levels. This routine only changes 2 – 3 days before hatching when the egg should no longer be turned and the humidity is raised to 70 – 75% (either by increasing the exposed surface of water or by decreasing the ventilation in the incubator). Humidity is usually measured with a hygrometer. Incubators can sometimes be used as a useful stop-gap measure until a foster pair has been organized or alternatively their use can continue until hatching.

    Once successful hatching has been achieved, if no foster is available to raise the chick, then both warmth and food must be provided artificially.

    Heat can be provided by a converted incubator, a pet heating pad or a container (even a cardboard box is fine) with an incandescent bulb. If using a bulb, the heat can be altered by changing the height of the bulb above the chick, the wattage (strength) of the globe or using a thermostat. A temperature between 32?qC and 37?qC should be maintained. Newly hatched chicks do better at the higher end of the scale. Humidity is best supplied by providing a source of water near the heat source such as a small jar of water. Chicks that are too cold will become poorly responsive and feel cold to the touch, and when very cold start to display a reflex involving repeated opening of the beak. Hot youngsters also become poorly responsive and become a bright pink colour. Youngsters older than 7 days will also pant.

    To feed the chick, an artificial beak needs to be created. This can easily be done by cutting off the needle attachment on the end of a syringe. Different syringe sizes are used as the chick grows. The regurgitation of the parents is mimicked by depressing the syringe plunger as the chick eats, as shown in the diagram. The diameter of the opening should be such that the chick’s beak is able to fit inside the tube opening and open up inside the tube body. The chick will then drink the hand-rearing formula in which its beak is submerged.


    AUREOMYCIN:

     

    Old treatment for parathyphoid: Aureomycin 25 mgm. This drug is less and less effective.

     

    AUTHORS

     

    There is one thing that I agree completely and it is what Hackamer loft write in his Web site:

    “It is a habit of mine to question the credibility and experience of authors in our pigeon publications. I have known several very closely who have merely parroted information from someone else. I think you have every right to question and look at an author’s background.”

    From Raymond: Read a lot, do not believe all what is said, do you own experiences. This way you will increase your knowledge a lot.


    AVIAN INFLUENZA


    From Dr. Gordon Chalmers:


    The current worldwide concern about the spread of Avian Influenza among humans and poultry in southeast Asia also has many pigeon fanciers interested in the role of pigeons, especially racing pigeons, in this serious disease. On the basis of these concerns, it seems appropriate and timely to take a look at this disease, for the benefit of fanciers.
    Influenza has been known since 1878, and is caused by a Type A influenza virus. There are three types of influenza viruses, namely A, B & C. Type A viruses have been recovered from humans, swine and horses, and occasionally, from birds and other mammals. Types B and C are usually isolated only from humans. The virus currently infecting in birds in southeast Asia is a Type A influenza virus.
    Thousands of influenza viruses belonging to many subtypes have been recovered from domestic and avian species over the world. Infections in domestic or confined birds have been associated with several forms of the disease, ranging from unapparent to mild upper respiratory disease, to loss of egg production, through to acute fatal disease.

    At present, Avian Influenza is recognized in two forms:

    1. Highly pathogenic avian influenza, also called Fowl Plague, and

    2. Low pathogenic avian influenza. ('Pathogenic' refers to the ability of an infecting agent to produce disease - hence, a virus that is highly pathogenic is capable of producing severe disease and often, acute death.)

     

    AVIAN MEDICATION (A TO Z)

    When your bird is sick, you take it to your vet, some tests are run and evaluated, and then a medication is prescribed. When administered as directed for the correct length of time, your bird gets well. That seems very straightforward, doesn't it? However, the simple act of choosing the correct medication for treatment is based on many different factors. Let's take a look at the complicated and confusing world of avian medications so we will have a better understanding of this subject.

    There are many medications used in avian medicine today. Veterinarians may choose to prescribe from drugs developed for human use, those labeled for use in dogs and cats, medications compounded from a pharmacy or less commonly, from those actually developed and labeled for use in birds. How a veterinarian chooses a drug to dispense depends on many factors, including the species of the bird, its age, its general condition, what type of disease it has, testing results, drug cost, drug availability, how the drug is formulated (pill, oral suspension, injectable, etc.) and personal choice. Drugs can be given orally, by injection, by nebulization, topically (in the eye, ear canal, etc.), in the cloaca or possibly by a transdermal patch.

    Medications usually have two names, the chemical name that is used to describe the drug, and the trade name that is the name given by a drug company to identify their brand of that drug. For example, there are many trade names for the drug combination, trimethoprim/sulfa, including BactrimTM and SeptraTM. For this reason, it is less confusing to use the chemical name when discussing a drug. Also, readers in other countries will probably not be familiar with trade names of drugs in our country and vice versa.

     AVIAN TUBERCULOSIS:

     It is an important disease which affect many species but, thank God, it doesn’t affect pigeons. :

     http://www.oie.int/fileadmin/Home/eng/Health_standards/tahm/2.03.06_AVIAN_TB.pdf

     

     AVIARY:

    A wire enclosure attached to the loft so that the pigeons can sun themselves and in which a bath may be given. It should be strong and the wire small enough to keep predators out.

    How to build an attractive aviary at low price

    http://www.buildanaviary.com/how-to.html?hop=mogulmap

    AVIOMED: 




    http://vw.aviomed.co.za/index.php?Itemid=10




    AVOID:

     

     

    Hi Every one,

    Dr. David E. Marx D.V.M. gives us important information on what should be avoid in our pigeons.As he says, we have heard  these things before, but we all forget and need to be reminded periodically of the medication no-no's. There are all degrees of net results and variables involved, but in general, the rules apply.:

    Avoid using Emtryl during mating times. It has been shown to temporarily decrease fertility in the cock. We assume that the other anti-trichomonas drugs have similar effects but as far as I know, this has not been demonstrated.

    Avoid using the "bendazole" wormers such as Panacur and Telmintic during the moult or when feeding youngsters. This family of drugs can cause feather abnormalities, sometimes severe.

    Avoid having grit or pellets available when treating with the Tetracycline family of antibiotics. The calcium in grit or pellets can bind the drug making it unusable in the body, resulting in severe underdosing. The Tetracycline family includes Terramycin, Aureomycin, Tetracycline, and Doxycycline.

    Avoid leaving medications in the drinking water more than 24 hours. The medications gradually break down and become ineffective. The warmer the temperature the faster this occurs, so in warm weather a 12 hour limit may be more practical. Make fresh preparation each morning.

    Avoid higher doses when medicating. Just because a little bit is good doesn't mean that more is better. The recommended dosage should be adhered to. Some drugs are very toxic at higher levels.

    Note: Remember, when treating via the drinking water that the dose should be adjusted depending on the volume of water consumed. The recommended doses are for mild temperatures. Use a little less in hot conditions, and up to twice the dosage in very cold weather when the birds drink much less.

    Avoid using drugs at lower than recommended doses and for less than the recommended time. This practice allows the organisms to become tolerant or resistant to the medications by being exposed to them for insufficient time or at levels too low to elimimate them. This resistance factor becomes very important and gradually produces "super bugs" which are unstoppable with antibiotics.

    Avoid using antibiotics as "preventive medication". Antibiotics prevent nothing. They are used to treat certain infections but, by no means, prevent anything. Actually they may make the birds more susceptible to infection because they eliminate the normal beneficial bacteria; and these bacteria protect the birds, in some degree, from infection.

    Avoid mixing medications unless the mixtures are shown to be safe. Certain combinations are known to be safe and generally used. Don't get carried away and assume that all medications can be mixed and dosed simultaneously. Proceed cautiously and try to stick to known safe combinations.

    Avoid putting anything else in the drinking water when household bleach, such as Clorox, is used as a water disinfectant. These are very strong oxidizing substances and will change the product mixed with them, either rendering them ineffective or toxic.

    Clorox is to be used only by itself. Discontinue it when medicating in the water, or even using vitamins in the water.

    Specially selected for our Modena Talk members by Raymond Julien.

     

     

     

     

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