VACCINES

 

VACCINATION:

Now, we should look to what
are the recommendations to help our pigeon’s system to obtain the best
protection possible. Be sure, it is not with antibiotics given in prevention…
The first step is the vaccinations about the most common viruses that can
attack our beloved birds.
.

We have already discussed in
this group about the better time to vaccinate our birds. As
right now, it is too late to vaccinate the old birds, we will examine in more
depth the vaccination of our young birds. A fancier asked to Dr. Wim Peters:
can a vaccination be advantageous?

Answer:
Of course, we use vaccination because they protect our birds in a lot of
harmful contagious diseases; otherwise, we will not use them. Meanwhile, as we
know, every inoculation has some side effects: The inoculated virus or
bacterium places some level of burden on the system.

However,
the degree of the burden always depends on all other circumstances, not only on
the vaccine. For example, it depends on the age of the pigeons and the age at
which they receive their first vaccination against the particular illness.

It is very
important that we all work on the immunity factor of our pigeons and
vaccination is the first step to consider.
Dr.
Peters
write that if we vaccinate older birds that had not received the same
vaccine
when young, we saw unquestionably negative reactions to appear:
Languishing, depression, possibly more severe
symptoms and even death. These negative
side-effects were not observed with specimens which had been vaccinated with
the same vaccine at a young age..

Dr. Pascal
Lanneau writes in one of his book: Experience has shown us that young pigeons
which are vaccinated very early, at
the age of 3 weeks against paramyxovirus seem also to have a greater
resistance
to adenoviruses! !!We see a very
positive effect on the immunity of the pigeons if they have been vaccinated
when they were very young!

Those following products we talked about are very good for pigeons and have
been tested in
many occasions, not only by breeders but also by experts and are recommended by
the best veterinarians in the world. To a question asked by a breeder that was
not sure about the product and that asked the following question: WHAT IS ALOE
VERA AND WHAT BENEFIT DOES IT HAVE? Here is the answer Dr. Gordon Chalmers gave
him:

‘Over the years, aloe Vera has been regarded as a master healer, often when
used
on the skin surfaces or consumed as a drink. The bulk of the leaf is filled
with
gel that contains 96% water and 4% containing 75 known substances. When applied
to wounds, aloe gel is a mild anaesthetic, and relieves itching, swelling and
pain.; it soothes burns that also heal more quickly. What is also very
important
is that it has antibacterial and antifungal properties, and stimulates
fibroblasts, the cell responsible for wound healing. It has a variety of
helpful
effects when used both internally and externally.”

‘’As a natural source of trace and micro elements, Aloe Vera strengthens the
immune system and hastens recovery after illness.’’

Of course, and this is remarkable, Aloe Vera can be use for any inflammation
and
ulcer on the feet.

It is why I have much confidence in Aloe Vera and I am going to use it like
other immunostimulants to reinforce the immune system of my pigeons and by the
same way, the antibiotics too often used by many, would not be necessary.

Specially prepared
for the Modena Talk Group by Raymond Julien.,

Hi everyone,

 

My last topic of the week was:

 

What is the best time to vaccinate our pigeons?

 

Those information are given by Dr. Pascal Lanneau from Belgium. :

 

 

At the age of 3 weeks, when the pigeon is weaned it is already possible to vaccinate against PMV.

 

 

At the age of 6 weeks, you can vaccinate for pox or paratyphoid. Do not vaccinate for both at the same time. Follow the prescription of the manufacturer for the second dose.

Vaccination of the old birds should be done yearly after the molting period or at least one month before the breeding period.

re details:

1-      Never use any PMV vaccines before the age of 3 weeks. Reason: The virus of the vaccine and the maternal antibodies will neutralize each others.

2-      We should not vaccinate a group of pigeons for paratyphoid that already displays symptoms. We must treat completely before. Enrofloxacin or trimethoprim-sulphonamide combination will get rid of all lurking salmonella that could be in the bodies of the birds.

3-       If we use a live vaccine against paratyphoid, we should not use it at least 6 weeks before pairing.

4-      After vaccination, strong immunity should develop only after about 3 weeks.

5-      Experience has showed that pigeons vaccinated against PMV at the age of 3 weeks seem to have a greater resistance to adenovirosis.

6-       It is proven that no vaccine in the world that gives 100% protection but it will certainly help to fight the treat. .

7-      Never vaccinate ill pigeons. Never vaccinate during an important period: breeding, moulting and stress period. Never vaccinate with vaccines that has not been stored under the right circumstances or that is expired.  

Any comment?

Vaccines - yes or no?

 

Zsolt Talaber, DVM

Part 1

 

The use of vaccinations is intended to provide individual specimens and the whole flock with protection against the disease in question. Because of its importance, we will repeat again here that with the threat of circovirus infection, individual vaccinations must be administered at the youngest possible age.

 

Nowadays it is impossible to imagine economic and successful pigeon-breeding anywhere in the world without regular use of vaccinations. In addition, active protection against paramyxovirus is obligatory in most countries.

 

The vaccines used in pigeon-breeding usually protect against one particular pathogen, and so we refer to them as monovalent vaccines. Vaccines that are effective against two pathogens at once we call bivalent, and we can also find examples of this in pigeon care. Vaccines that contain more than two active ingredients are called polyvalent, but in pigeon-breeding these are not common.

 

Monovalent vaccines

 

Vaccines against paramyxovirus

 

It is with regard to vaccines used against diseases caused by paramyxovirus that demand is best satisfied. (Indeed, sometimes almost too well, leading to a competitive battle between pharmaceutical companies producing the various vaccines - which often try to influence even local pigeon associations.) There are products available specifically approved for pigeons, but many also use the vaccines produced against Newcastle disease (avian pneumoencephalitis) in chickens. The latter are usually injections, but are also distributed in a form that can be administered orally.

 

 

Vaccines containing the Newcastle disease (avian pneumoencephalitis) virus

  These vaccines do not contain pigeon PMV, but its "parent" virus, the original Newcastle disease virus (most commonly the so-called La Sota strain). Their use is very widespread, despite the fact that products specifically made for pigeon PMV are also available. Their prevalence is partly thanks to their relatively low price, and partly to the fact that previously, before the appearance of specific pigeon PMV vaccines, these represented the only defence against the virus.

 

  As the Newcastle disease (NCD) virus is only related (albeit closely) to pigeon PMV, in pigeons the capacity of such vaccines to provide immunity does not in principle reach that of PMV-specific vaccines. (This is particularly true of vaccines used in drinking water.) Still, the majority of these vaccines gives good protection, and thus their use with adequate regularity provides sufficient immunity against pigeon PMV. This can be stated with confidence, based on pigeon fanciers' experience over many years, all the more so because in recent years vaccines containing the original Newcastle disease virus (e.g. the La Sota strain) have appeared and gained approval for use with pigeons.

 

  The earliest possible time for their use varies, but some can already be administered at the age of three weeks.

 

 

Vaccines containing pigeon-specific paramyxovirus

  These vaccines actually contain the pigeon PMV that causes the illness in pigeons. So, assuming they are used professionally, it is from them that we can expect the highest level and longest duration of protection. According to their official description, the earliest they can usually be used is when birds are five weeks old.

 

Note

  Protection against pigeon PMV is obligatory in many countries. Which vaccine is officially accepted, however, varies from country to country, and such regulations are known to change. Before applying the vaccination, we should ask about the current requirements, if we do not want to encounter unpleasant surprises at races and fairs.

 

  Many fanciers follow the practice of alternating the virus strain of the vaccine used. First they administer the vaccine against Newcastle disease, often choosing one that is added to drinking water. Two or three weeks later they use the vaccine specific to pigeon PMV. Our experience suggests that this is a good technique which results in a high level of protection.

 

 

Vaccines used against pox virus

 

When using a vaccine against pox we should take great care to immunize every member of the flock at the same time. It can be given from the age of five weeks, and an annual booster injection is recommended. As the virus survives in the environment for a long time, specimens in a yard that has once been infected should be given systematic vaccinations for at least 8-10 years afterwards.

 

  Some products should be used in a different way from the other vaccines, by rubbing them into the feather follicules. (This is described in detail in the section on pigeon pox).

 

 

Anti-paratyphoid vaccines

 

These vaccines generally contain the strain Salmonella typhimurium var. Copenhagen. Sadly, although demand for them would be high, in many countries anti-typhoid products are only accessible with great difficulty, if at all.

 

  There are vaccines that contain killed or weakened salmonella bacteria, with their inherent benefits and disadvantages.

 

Vaccines containing killed pathogens

 

Advantages

  Put less of a burden on the flock. If absolutely necessary, they can be used to vaccinate a flock already displaying symptoms, and their effect is not ruined by an antibiotic administered at the same time.

 

Disadvantages

  Elicit a rather weaker immunization result, and the protection they offer is weaker and lasts for a shorter time. At least three vaccinations are required in the first year, which then have to be repeated every six months.

 

Vaccines containing live, attenuated pathogens

 

Advantages

  Provide a higher level of protection. A single shot can provide adequate protection, and it is enough to repeat them every 9-12 months.

 

Disadvantages

  They put a greater burden on the flock, and induce more unwanted reactions after the vaccination. Antibiotics must not be used within five days before and after the vaccination. If this does prove necessary, we can expect the vaccination to lose some of its effectiveness, so it is advisable to give a booster shot to such specimens a few weeks later.

 

 

In general, anti-paratyphoid vaccines can be given from the age of 4-6 weeks.

 

Note

  It is worth noting - especially given the difficulty of acquiring them - that customized, so-called flock vaccines against paratyphoid can be ordered from veterinary laboratories specialising in this. After a sample is taken, the strains currently present in the flock are cultured artificially, and a vaccine is produced from this bacterial culture. One great advantage of such vaccines is that they defend precisely against the strain causing the problem in the given pigeon flock, and so allow us to achieve the highest possible level of effectiveness. Their disadvantage is that they are more expensive than mass-produced vaccines, and their preparation takes time.

 

 

Bivalent vaccines

 

By using bivalent vaccines we can save precious time, for two reasons. Firstly, we only have to perform one vaccination instead of two, which itself is time-saving, and also means that the flock is only burdened half as much. Secondly, we can save a week or two in developing protection against illnesses, which bearing in mind the circovirus threat to chicks is far from being an insignificant consideration.

 

  In pigeon care we typically find bivalent vaccines that protect against paramyxovirus and pox virus. We can generally use these for the first time at around the age of 5-6 weeks.

 

 

Polyvalent vaccines

 

Polyvalent vaccines are widely available in dog and cat care, for example, but not yet common for pigeons. Polyvalent pigeon vaccines are at the testing stage in some countries, but research into their effectiveness and their official registration are tasks for the future.

 

Over a number of years I had the opportunity to try out a certain polyvalent vaccine, which contained five different agents (against paramyxovirus, paratyphoid, herpes, mycoplasma and chlamydia). Everyday experience showed that the vaccine provided adequate protection against all five diseases, if it was administered three times in the first year of life. (When the pigeon was three weeks old, then 6-8 weeks, then about six months.) Afterwards the birds vaccinated three times in their first year had to be vaccinated once a year. It was when we vaccinated older birds that had not received the same vaccine when young that we saw unquestionably negative reactions appear (languishment, dejection, possibly more severe symptoms, even death). These negative side-effects were not observed with specimens vaccinated from a young age, and these birds acquired a long-lasting high level of immunity against all five diseases.

 

  When discussing polyvalent vaccines, we should add that in theory these vaccines have disadvantages. Firstly, the level of resistance that develops to each illness is lower, because after the multi-component vaccine is administered the energies and attention of the body's immune system are divided. This can be compensated for by using the polyvalent vaccines three or even four times in the first year of the pigeon's life.

  Another disadvantage is that a polyvalent vaccine causes a larger burden for the body all at once than a monovalent one, and so can only be given to a flock in a fine state of health, and even then we can expect negative reactions in the days after the vaccination. This is particularly true if the polyvalent vaccine contains bacterial agents.

 

 

Note

  It is generally true of all vaccines that if at all possible, we should immunize the entire flock, or at least all specimens in a particular loft, at once. Another golden rule is that the vaccinations should be completed at the very least 3-4 weeks before the pairing or racing season. If administered close to the breeding season, the vaccination can make eggs infertile, while during racing season it can lead to a decline in performance, or be dangerous because of the negative phase .

 

Negative phase

  For 2-3 weeks after vaccination, we must be particularly careful that the vaccinated birds not be exposed to any kind of source of infection. For this is when they pass through the so-called negative phase , during which their system is highly sensitive to infection. The essence of the negative phase is that the inoculated virus or bacterium immediately neutralizes some of the antibodies present from maternal origin or from an earlier vaccination, and it is only 10-14 days later that the vaccine induces a level of immunity higher than the initial one. That is to say, for about two weeks after the vaccination is given, there will be less protective material in the system than there was previously!

 

  Finally, it is very useful if we raise the active protection of our pigeons to the highest possible level in the first year of their lives with booster shots.

 Vaccines - yes or no?

 

Zsolt Talaber, DVM

Part 2

 

The length of the effect of preventive vaccination is affected by a number of factors. It depends on the immune state of the vaccinated pigeon, on the vaccination taking place in satisfactory fashion, on the number of vaccinations, and not least on the vaccine itself, or rather on the strength of the antigen effect of the pathogen that the vaccine inserts into the body. The latter depends on the type of pathogen, and on whether the vaccine contains dead or live pathogens. Before we go into the details, the answer to the second question is that the protection given by paramyxo vaccines is relatively short - even the strongest products do not offer protection for much more than 12 months. Not in principle, and even less in practice. Therefore an annual booster injection is justified.

  Of course, this does not mean that 13 months after a vaccination it is certain that a pigeon will fall ill if it succumbs to an infection. The protection that develops in response to the vaccination is strongest 2-3 weeks afterwards, then decreases over time, but even after a year and a half there will remain a certain amount of the antibodies in the pigeon's body. This low level of protection can be broken by a strong viral infection, however, leading to illness. Whether illness develops from infection, that is whether a pathogen can proliferate in the pigeon's body, depends on the virulence of the attacking pathogen and on the level of protection. The lower the level of antibodies, that is the longer it is since the vaccination took place, or the stronger the pathogen, the greater the likelihood of illness. It is possible that even after a year and half a weaker infection will not cause damage, and equally that after only 10 months a strong, "wild" strain of a virus can break through a relatively strong antibody level and cause illness. The chances of these are even greater if the circumstances of the vaccination happen to decrease its effectiveness.

 

The degree of artificial protection and the success (or lack of success) of vaccinations:

In general, pigeons that have been vaccinated, that is immunized, acquire protection against the disease targeted by the vaccination in question. It is highly important for us to know, however, that this artificially induced protection is never 100% guaranteed ! Not for one individual specimen, and certainly not for the flock as a whole.

 

Below we list the factors that can cause pigeons to develop a disease despite having been vaccinated against it. We will take injections against the disease caused by the paramyxovirus as an example, of course.

 

Reasons for vaccinated pigeons later developing the disease:

Errors in vaccination

- inadequate vaccine: use of vaccines containing the wrong strain of paramyxovirus

- inadequate vaccine:   fault in manufacture

- vaccine past its expiry date

- vaccine that is in principle still valid, but that has been stored incorrectly

- injection in the wrong place (e.g. within skin, in the air)

- injection at the wrong time (when specimen is ill or exhausted)

- polluted syringe (active ingredient is ruined)

- specimen infected with parasites

- wrong vaccination dose (inadequate amount of vaccine administered)

- vaccine ruined (put in water that is too hot before being injected)

- specimen accidentally left out (specimens mixed up at time of vaccination)

- specimen left out for other reasons (e.g. pigeon not in yard at time of vaccination)

 

Errors unrelated to vaccination

Pathogen-related:

- overwhelming infection, attack of too great a mass of pathogens at once, which is capable of breaking through even the protection provided by the vaccination

- long-lasting, continuous infection, which exhausts the immune system

- attack of a particularly wild strain of the virus or bacterium, which is more virulent than the average

- a mutation, or transformation, of the virus

- attack of a bacterium of the same type as the vaccine but of a different subtype (e.g. a new strain of salmonella imported from abroad)

Because of inadequate operation of the immune system:

- metabolic causes (e.g. lack of selenium)

- presence of circovirus infection     

- individual, congenital immune deficiency

  From the above it is clear that innumerable errors can occur even during the vaccination. But even if there is no such negligence, it is almost impossible that every member of our flock acquire protection from the vaccination . (This raises our attention to the fact that while localized protection or vaccination is essential, on its own - without continuous prevention of epidemics and the necessary hygiene - it is not enough to protect the health of the whole of the flock.) Why is it so important to draw attention to this reality? Because it can make it seem as if the vaccination is unsuccessful , thereby undermining our faith in the necessity and effectiveness of vaccines, possibly causing some fanciers to stop using them. This would be a grave mistake, however, because even if an illness appears in a vaccinated flock, it causes immeasurably less damage than if the flock is unvaccinated and therefore unprotected.

 

  In the light of the above, an annual booster injection is definitely warranted. The recommended vaccination programme against paramyxovirus illness is as follows: young birds should be vaccinated as early as possible, especially in places where circovirus infection poses a threat. Some paramyxovirus vaccines can be used from the age of 3 weeks. (Certain vaccines can be used from the age of 1 day!) Subsequent booster injections are required annually, but in endemic areas an extra reminder vaccination is strongly recommended in the first year of life, 3-6 weeks after the first injection.

 

 

 

 

VELVET  ANTLER:

In general deer velvet antler may have range of benefits.It may:

  • Help maintain good nutitional health

  • Help maintain a solid sense of wellbeing

  • Help athletes nutritionally

  • Help support joint structure and function

Vent Bones They are the two small bones directly behind and on either side of the breast bone and

under its tail.

 

VETERINARIANS WORLD WIDE:

Veterinarians in the whole word aren't all well informed about our pigeons system. Have a look on what follows:

To all concerned,

 

I don’t know if this following post has been written in this group or not but any way, I think I should post it as it is an important one.  As you probably know, the fancy pigeons, a few years ago were way back in the researches in pigeons compared to the racing homers fanciers were. With the help of Internet, this is changing now but we, fancy pigeon’s breeders, still have much to learn but principally also we have to improve our methods in all possible ways for the welfare of our pigeons.  As an example, who in the fancy pigeon’s fanciers were aware of the great importance of the immune system of our pigeons a few years ago?

 

 

Here is that post:

 

 

Do you know that medicine, researches in pigeons,
sickness etc. are so advanced nowadays because of the
racing homers breeders? 99 % of the medicine for
pigeons has been developed for them. Millions of
dollars are spent by racing homers authorities to
improve feeding methods, fertility, and much more.
Racing homer breeders are many years ahead of fancy
pigeons in ALL departments. There are not many pigeon
veterinary experts in pigeons in the world, 7 now of the
best ones are working with the racing pigeon breeders.

Let me tell you a short story that happened very
recently with a pigeon veterinarian about a problem a
breeder had with his fancy pigeons.

Here is what the fancy pigeon breeder wrote to Dr. Collin walker:

 ''My vet diagnosed streptococcisis in my pigeon by culturing
of droppings. He suggested a strong treatment with
amoxicillin and clavulanic acid but the treatment did
not produce any outcome in the long time. What can I
do now?”

Dr. Collin Walker answered: Now, you can look for
ANOTHER VET. Until then I have good news: streptococci
are swarming in my pigeon as well!''

This is indeed a beautiful case. Streptococcus is
regarded as a NORMAL inhabitant of the bowel in
pigeons. It is therefore found in the dropping of both
healthy and sick birds. Finding it in the droppings
therefore means nothing! To diagnose streptocossus a
veterinary should be able to identify the bacteria
elsewhere in the body (never in the bowel)

This is a good question to ask to your vet next time
you visit him.....LOL. ..

Yes, all aspects of the wheel on pigeon breedings has
been invented
by racing homer breeders and should nor be reinvented.
On the contrary, we must take advantage of all their
discovery made by them and bring them to our modenas.
This is the only way to get improvement in our beloved
modenas!

Again, it is open for discussion.

Raymond Julien,
Canada.

http://www.pipa.be/en/newsandarticles/ask_the_vet

http://www.pigeonnetwork.com/vetdirectory/vetusa/drgordonchalmers/breastmusclespart1.cfm

http://www.auspigeonco.com.au/

VINEGAR AND GARLIC:

VINEGAR AND GARLIC (From Ad  Schaerlaeckens)

The biggest health problems that birds face are salmonella, canker and Adeno/coli.

Their pathogens mainly spread through the water and many of those ‘wise guys’ agree a very good disinfector is vinegar.

Vinegar is a natural enemy of many bacteria, it keeps the digestive system in balance and it even has a positive effect on the digestion of the feed.

It is supposed to be a better disinfector than bleach (chloride) against salmonella.

I heard a scientist say that fanciers would save money by putting apple vinegar PLUS garlic in the water frequently, since you would make much antibiotic treatments later on superfluous. 

A provision of ample, clean, fresh, pathogen-free drinking water that is regularly replaced is important, because infected water is one of the most common ways of pathogens to pass from one pigeon to another till the whole flock is infected. But water with some vinegar in it should even be better.

A BELIEVER

A very knowledgeable scientist once stated that systematic spraying the walls with slightly vinegarish water is far more effective than whitewash like so many do.

Those that know my articles or me must have noticed I am sceptical on most  additives that are promoted so aggressively in the media.

Once I believed in yoghurt and buttermilk as a means to stop Adeno coli (young bird disease) but I lost confidence.

I never believed in vinegar either.

But after many discussions with vets and scientists and after I met that guy that had hardly any problems with Adeno and canker since he put vinegar and garlic in the drinker frequently I began to doubt and turned into a believer, since I cannot imagine they are all wrong about products that are not profitable for them.

 

VINEGAR again by Ad Schaerlaeckens

I am very sceptic about most food additives and believe in little.

When a few years ago Adeno/Coli became a big problem many fanciers thought that vinegar in the water was a good means to prevent an outbreak.

They were wrong.

Take Peter van de Merwe for arguments’ sake. He started to give his birds vinegar and never before did he have so many problems with E Coli.

So vinegar was BS as well I thought.

But in those days I had just bought a bottle and though it is cheap I did not want to throw it away and I gave my birds vinegar 3 days per week, the whole winter long.

In the spring that followed the birds looked so healthy that I forgot to treat against canker and much to my surprise there were not any signs of trichomoniasis in the year that followed.

I wondered if this was due to vinegar, so understandably I continued to give my birds vinegar and believe it or not, since 3 years I have not treated against canker and I never had problems.

Ignoring canker was something I would not have dared before.

 

OTHER VETS

I discussed this phenomenon with the vets Herbots and Schroeder and they had also  experienced that vinegar kept canker away.

This intrigued doctor Schroeder so much that whenever he checked birds and found  they were totally free from canker he asked the fancier if he gave vinegar.

Without exception the owners of those ‘trichomoniasis free’ birds gave vinegar, some combined with garlic or Naturaline (a kind of tea sold by Natural).

This week one could read a report of Mr Mertens from Arendonk.

He was two times champion of all Belgium and in this report one could also read that since he gave his birds vinegar he had no problems with canker any more.

The only problem he faces is that fanciers do not believe him.

I do. 

There are too many examples like these to think about a coincidence. 

 

ADVICE

Today both doctor Schroeder, doctor Herbots and doctor H de Weerd advise to often give vinegar. Preferably not during the racing season and at least 3 days per week.

One day only is useless.

First the birds need to be free since vinegar does not cure but seems to be a perfect means to prevent canker.

Ant to prevent is always better than to cure. 

The other good news is that it is very cheap.

 

VIDEOS

See Dozens of videos:

http://www.pipa.be/en/newsandarticles/videos

 

 

 

VIRUSES


VIRUSES and BACTERIAS : DIFFERENCES


A virus is acellular (has no cell structure) and requires a living host to survive; it causes illness in its host, which causes an immune response. Bacteria are alive, while scientists are not yet sure if viruses are living or nonliving; in general, they are considered to be nonliving.

 Bacteria are single-celled, prokaryotic microorganisms that exist in abundance in both living hosts and in all areas of the planet (e.g., soil, water). By their nature, they can be either "good" (beneficial) or "bad" (harmful) for the health of plants, humans, and other animals that come into contact with them.

  TRIMETHOPRIM

 TFor treating E-coli, Salmonella, bacterial infections in common and Coccidiosis in pigeons.


  The combination of Trimethoprim and Sulfa give an in unison bactericidal broad-spectrum effect.     Both antibiotic intervene in different ways. This combination is active against gram-positive, gram- negative bacteria (like staphylococci and streptococci) and E-coli, Salmonella and Coccidiosis.

Trimethoprim/Sulfa is a water soluble powder, can also be given under the feed.

 

 VIRKON: AND VIRKON S

Raymond, sorry for the inconvenience.  I have gotten the response directly from our own Technical Leader for the Americas - Jeffrey Odle.   Please see his response below.  

Virkon and Virkon S are essentially the same product. Virkon is sold globally while Virkon S in N. America for the most part. We sell in Canada through Vetoquinol Canada and their technical leader is Dr. Claude Thibault at 800-363-1700.

Please let us know if we can assist with further questions.

Virkon S: A very effective powder disinfectant that has been shown to kill all classes of viruses, bacteria, yeast, moulds and fungi.It has a Ministry of Agriculture licence as a control against Paramyxovirus infection.     

 

 At this stage mention must be made of the use of Jik,Virkon,Virukill etc. These products disinfect the water and prevent the spread of the virus in the drinking water. They do not cure the disease in the pigeon. If this were the case we would drink Jik to cure our colds and flu!

 

For treatment of your pigeons use one teaspoon ( 5
milligrams) on ten litres ( two gallons) of drinking
water for three days.

Afterwards put your birds on a Flora treatment for
three days, and the drug peddlers will be crying,
because by then, most of your other medication you can
throw away. I know that many of you are aware and have
used Virkon S, but not many are using it to it's full
advantage. Best to give one day every 2 wekks after that
This is the only product that states on the
packet that it is effective against the 18 diseases
known to our pigeons. I hope by reading this letter
some of us will get smart, would we rather win with a
squeaky clean pigeon 100% healthy, or with a pigeon
full of substances that keeps it's temperature sky
high. I think we all know the answer to that one, and
the Virkon S way is a lot cheaper.
I only used it once to twice a week myself, although others have used it more
intensely. I did not observe any negative affects on the adults or young apart
from the fact that they don't like the taste of it and shake their heads after
drinking it.

Re: [ModenaTalk] Virkon S

 

Hi Frank,

Yes you are right as I wrote yesterday. One teaspoon of Virkon for 2 gallons and
a half of water for 3 days is what is really recommanded. After that, always
follow the treatment with a one day treatment every 15 days to keep the medicine
activity. Thanks for telling it.

By the way, did you receive the picture I sent you? I need your comments...

Raymond.

FROM CRPU: Canadian Racing  Pigeon Union  

Virkon® is a disinfectant, possessing wide spectrum virucidal (Table 2), bactericidal (Table 3) and fungicidal (Table 4) activity. The effectiveness of Virkon® is further enhanced by its excellent detergent properties, so that clean disease-free surfaces can be achieved. Virkon® is unique in its composition.

Its activity is based on a buffered synergized acid peroxygen system containing a high percentage of surfactant. Virkon® can be used on all surfaces and in all situations. Once diluted in a 1% solution, Virkon® is of low toxicity, non-tainting, and non-irritant. Because of its high detergency and mode of action, Virkon® can be used in an exceptional variety of situations for effective cleaning and virucidal disinfection in a single operation. Virkon® can be applied manually or through all types of cleaning and spraying equipment.

Readily soluble in lukewarm water giving a clear pink solution. Virkon® consists mainly of inorganic salts.

 

 

 

 

 

VITAMINS 

My question is: ''Vitamins: sense or nonsense?

We often hear that vitamins are not necessary for our
pigeons. This is true but in one condition only! If
you give your pigeons different fresh seeds your
chances are good that your pigeons will not need any
other vitamins. But are those seeds you give to your
pigeons fresh and contain all vitamins they need?
This is the big question.
Look at the following:

Millet: Storage Locations: a cool, dry cabinet or
the refrigerator or freezer.
Shelf Life: millet will keep for about 2 months when
properly stored in a kitchen cabinet, 4 months in the
refrigerator, and 6 months or longer in the freezer.
Other Considerations: millet can become rancid quickly
if it is not stored properly.

Wheat should be tightly wrapped or stored in tightly
sealed plastic or glass containers.
Storage Locations: a cool, dry, dark cabinet.
Shelf Life: up to one year if properly stored.

Considerations: it is best to store barley in the
refrigerator or freezer during the summer months and
at all times in hot climates, but it must be tightly
wrapped to reduce the possibility of the grain
absorbing moisture from the refrigeration compartment.

Buckwheat Shelf Life: up to 2 to 3 months in the
refrigerator and for 6 months or longer in the
freezer.

Those are only examples but it talks by themselves.
Are we able to store our seends in those best
conditions? An other example we might give is the
corn:: Corn Storage Locations: a cool, dark, dry
location.
Shelf Life: dried whole corn kernels may keep for
several years if properly stored... If it is crunch
corn, it will become rancid in a few weeks!

 

So If your seeds are kept in the best conditions
possible after about 2 to 3 months, they will slowly
but surely lost their quality. As I do not know any
area where the gains are harvested every 3 to 4
months, VITAMINS ARE NECESSARY FOR OUR PIGEONS!!!

Dr. Meyer, a great pigeon specialist and researcher
who don't sell pigeon medicine wrote: ''I don't see
why pigeon fanciers are so negative about supplementary
pellet feeds which are common practice in animal
husbandry. Presently, it is the simplest way of
providing a scientifically responsible supplement in
the shortages in feed mixture. Vitamins, trace
elements, minerals, amino-acids can be included in a
professionally manufactured pellet. The amino-acids
are of particular importance because four ot the
essential amino acids: lysine, methionine, cystine and
trytophan are lacking in grain. When you also know
that a shortage of a certain amino acids, for instance
lysine, limits the absorption of the others, then you
will be able to UNDERSTAND the importance of this"

http://www.racingbirds.com/vitD.html

 

The theory of nutrition for the pigeon is really quite easy to understand.
The fancier must give:

·        Grain for energy, protein and fibre.

·        Minerals grits, powdered minerals and trace elements.

·        Vitamins are usually given with trace elements in the water.

·        Extra energy, vitamins and protein can be given in the form of special oils on the food during the high energy times of racing and when the adults are feeding young.

Pigeons can survive on grain and grit alone, but they cannot reach the level of health required to withstand the pressures of breeding. Good feeding will control most illnesses of pigeons. For example, there is a major increase in the minerals and trace elements required when the adult pigeons are feeding babies, but grit alone does not provide all of the necessary minerals and trace elements for continuing good health. Without mineral additives the end result is often egg laying problems, canker outbreaks and other illnesses.

The feed (grain) mixes do not provide enough vitamins and minerals for breedings. The fancier must select a feed mix that provides the energy and protein balance needed for the particular stage of the pigeon calendar. Breeding and moulting birds require a grain mix which is higher in protein and has a different essential amino acid balance than the pigeon. The feed mix requires at least six different grain types in the mix in order to get the best protein level and quality (i.e. balance of essential amino acids). The best quality of protein is seldom met and lysine (a very important amino acid for the pigeon) deficiencies are common in grain mixes with fewer than 4 grains. The protein quality of the grain mix can be improved by adding protein/amino acid supplements prior to feeding.


So to sum it up, If your seeds are kept in the best conditions
possible after about 2 to 3 months, they will slowly
but surely lost their quality. As I do not know any
area where the gains are harvested every 3 to 4
months, VITAMINS ARE NOT ONLY NECESSARY FOR OUR PIGEONS THEY ARE A MUST!!!

My first item open for discussion on vitamins is :

 

1-   Which vitamins are harmful as overdoses?

 

To get it as simple as possible, we should separate the group of vitamins

 

The first one will be water-soluble vitamins; the second one will be fat-soluble vitamins.

 

In the second group (fat-soluble), we have vitamins A, D, E, F, and K. All other vitamins are from the first group.

 

The main danger is to give too much vitamins A and D individually in over large quantities. For those vitamins it is important to stick to the prescribed doses and not to carry on with treatments any longer than is strictly recommended. We should never give vitamins K separately unless advise by a vet.

 

There will be more details on vitamins in my next posts.

 

Those information are drawn from articles written by the great Victor Vansalen from Belgium, a well know master breeder in the whole world.  

 

http://www.shewmaker.com/html/books.html

 

 

2- Which vitamins are helpful for winter breeding and
for cooped up birds that don't get enough sunshine or
even, not at all?

 

Remember, pigeons kept confined in a loft, especially during the cold winter months, are not capable of getting all the minerals and trace elements that their bodies require from the feed alone, so supplements are not only wise, but necessary.

3- Are there such things as breeding vitamins?

4- Is there a difference between vitamins for pigeons
and vitamins for humans?

5- Do all vitamins work in the same way? What are the
differences in natural and synthetics vitamins are
they equally good?

6- Which vitamins should we used after a treatment of
medicines?

 

Remember, pigeons kept confined in a loft, especially during the cold winter months, are not capable of getting all the minerals and trace elements that their bodies require from the feed alone, so supplements are not only wise, but necessary.

Nutrition, vitamins and minerals

There’s more to feeding than just grain and grit.

Nowadays, pigeon fanciers know that there’s more to feeding than just grain and grit. Certainly, grains are an excellent source of energy, protein, and fibre, but they are very low in the minerals, trace elements and vitamins required for the exertions of top racing and breeding robust youngsters.

For a long time, fanciers have used grit to provide the minerals in the diet of the racing and breeding pigeon, but only recently have they realised that shell grit does not contain all of the minerals and trace elements required for sustained racing and breeding success. Vitamins must also be added to the diet of the pigeon. The old timers understood this vitamin need from seeing the benefits of giving spinach and carrots to their birds. Today, most fanciers give vitamin supplements in the water or on the food.

The theory of nutrition for the pigeon is really quite easy to understand.
The fancier must give:

·        Grain for energy, protein and fibre.

·        Minerals grits, powdered minerals and trace elements.

·        Vitamins are usually given with trace elements in the water.

·        Extra energy, vitamins and protein can be given in the form of special oils on the food during the high energy times of racing and when the adults are feeding young.

Pigeons can survive on grain and grit alone, but they cannot reach the level of health required to withstand the pressures of racing or breeding. Eventually their health will fail under these extreme physical pressures. Good feeding will control most illnesses of pigeons. For example, there is a major increase in the minerals and trace elements required when the adult pigeons are feeding babies, but grit alone does not provide all of the necessary minerals and trace elements for continuing good health. Without mineral additives the end result is often egg laying problems, canker outbreaks and other illnesses. During racing there are increased needs for energy, protein and vitamins, as well as trace elements and minerals. The race team tires easy and is more susceptible to fatigue related respiratory and wet canker illnesses when extra vitamins and minerals are not provided.

The feed (grain) mixes do not provide enough vitamins and minerals for top performance. The fancier must select a feed mix that provides the energy and protein balance needed for the particular stage of the pigeon calendar. Breeding and moulting birds require a grain mix which is higher in protein, has a different essential amino acid balance than the pigeon in full training during the racing season. The feed mix requires at least six different grain types in the mix in order to get the best protein level and quality (i.e. balance of essential amino acids). The best quality of protein is seldom met and lysine (a very important amino acid for the pigeon) deficiencies are common in grain mixes with fewer than 4 grains. The protein quality of the grain mix can be improved by adding protein/amino acid supplements prior to feeding.

All grains are low in calcium (0.01- 0.20%) and sodium (20-600ppm). Phosphorous, copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium are also low in some grains. The vitamin concentrations in seeds are highly variable. Seeds do not contain vitamin A (corn provides carotenoids), or vitamin D. Vitamin E and vitamin K levels are low to undetectable. Among the B vitamins riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid are often low and vitamin B12 is not present. This means that the vitamins, minerals and trace elements lacking in the grain must given to the pigeons in some form or other. Many fanciers use spinach and shell grit, but this is still not enough to balance the nutritional requirements of the athletic pigeon. Nowadays most fanciers add vitamin and trace elements to the water once or twice a week and provide the minerals in powdered or block form ad lib.

Vitamins and Medications

With the birds on the darkening system, I feel they need plenty of vitamins to help in the production and growth of feather and body structure (size). I give vitamins 2 to 3 times per week to all my birds, breeders, old birds and young birds, all year-round.

I use Windsmore vitamins and an electrolyte poultry vitamin. I get the vitamins from Jedd's Pigeon Supply. I also use Red Cell, which is an iron rich horse vitamin. I purchase the Red Cell at a Farm Supply store. I also use apple cider vinegar and minced garlic. I buy these at the local grocery store.

VITAMIN A:

 

Action:

Indispensable in the formation of the sanguineous capillaries. Form leaves from pigments of the retina (eye).
Acts in the formation of all the epithelial coatings. It is used helping in infectious and antiparasitic diseases. Is also used as anti-stress substance and following the vaccinations.

Deficiency:

Sometimes it leads to the destruction of the eye (it is resembled to criza). Viscous exudate in the nasal graves. Patognomónicas are considered the nodules or white pustules as large as a pin head that are seen in post-mouth, pharynx, origin of the esophagus and stomach.

 

VITAMIN D
The organism animal synthesizes it from the ultra-violet rays, so its very important of the sun in the loft.

 

Action:

Its fundamental action is to promote the absorption and fixation of calcium and phosphorus in the skeleton.

Deficiency:

Deformation of the breastbone.
Fragile bones.
Eggs with thin and soft rind.
Fragile peak and soft nails.
Delay of the growth.
Problems in the plumage.
A prolonged deficiency leads to the " raquitismo " (rháchîtis = to meager)

 

VITAMIN E

 

Action:

It acts in the maintenance of the reproductive function of the birds. It increases the fertility of eggs.

Deficiency:

It can produce:
Encefalomacia: motor upheavals and ventral flexion of the head.
White muscular dystrophy, striae throughout muscular fibers of pectoral muscles.

 

VITAMIN K

 

Action:

It takes part in the normal process of the coagulation of the blood. Its used helping in the treatments of diseases that produce anaemia (coccidiosis, etc.)

Deficiency:

causes hemorrhages----> Anaemia

 

VITAMIN C:
It is practically the only vitamin that the organism of the birds can synthesize in sufficient amounts.

 

Action:

Its main action is to form and to maintain the intercellular material. Also it acts in the spare part of calcium and phosphorus.
Its used like antistress and helping in parasitic infectious diseases.

 

VITAMIN B1 Or TIAMINE:>

 

Action:

It is the anti-neuritic vitamin (antinervous)
Its also necessary in the metabolism of carbon hydrates.

Deficiency:

It can produce:
- Nervous symptom, paralysis of the legs and the muscles.
- Atrophy of the genital devices

 

VITAMIN B2 RIVOFLAVINE:

 

Deficiency:

diarrea
Delay in the growth
Paralysis of the legs, supports the tarsos and doubles the fingers inwards

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Remember, pigeons kept confined in a loft, especially during the cold winter months, are not capable of getting all the minerals and trace elements that their bodies require from the feed alone, so supplements are not only wise, but necessary.

Nutrition, vitamins and minerals

There’s more to feeding than just grain and grit.

Nowadays, pigeon fanciers know that there’s more to feeding than just grain and grit. Certainly, grains are an excellent source of energy, protein, and fibre, but they are very low in the minerals, trace elements and vitamins required for the exertions of top racing and breeding robust youngsters.

For a long time, fanciers have used grit to provide the minerals in the diet of the racing and breeding pigeon, but only recently have they realised that shell grit does not contain all of the minerals and trace elements required for sustained racing and breeding success. Vitamins must also be added to the diet of the pigeon. The old timers understood this vitamin need from seeing the benefits of giving spinach and carrots to their birds. Today, most fanciers give vitamin supplements in the water or on the food.

The theory of nutrition for the pigeon is really quite easy to understand.
The fancier must give:

·        Grain for energy, protein and fibre.

·        Minerals grits, powdered minerals and trace elements.

·        Vitamins are usually given with trace elements in the water.

·        Extra energy, vitamins and protein can be given in the form of special oils on the food during the high energy times of racing and when the adults are feeding young.

Pigeons can survive on grain and grit alone, but they cannot reach the level of health required to withstand the pressures of racing or breeding. Eventually their health will fail under these extreme physical pressures. Good feeding will control most illnesses of pigeons. For example, there is a major increase in the minerals and trace elements required when the adult pigeons are feeding babies, but grit alone does not provide all of the necessary minerals and trace elements for continuing good health. Without mineral additives the end result is often egg laying problems, canker outbreaks and other illnesses. During racing there are increased needs for energy, protein and vitamins, as well as trace elements and minerals. The race team tires easy and is more susceptible to fatigue related respiratory and wet canker illnesses when extra vitamins and minerals are not provided.

The feed (grain) mixes do not provide enough vitamins and minerals for top performance. The fancier must select a feed mix that provides the energy and protein balance needed for the particular stage of the pigeon calendar. Breeding and moulting birds require a grain mix which is higher in protein, has a different essential amino acid balance than the pigeon in full training during the racing season. The feed mix requires at least six different grain types in the mix in order to get the best protein level and quality (i.e. balance of essential amino acids). The best quality of protein is seldom met and lysine (a very important amino acid for the pigeon) deficiencies are common in grain mixes with fewer than 4 grains. The protein quality of the grain mix can be improved by adding protein/amino acid supplements prior to feeding.

All grains are low in calcium (0.01- 0.20%) and sodium (20-600ppm). Phosphorous, copper, zinc, manganese, and selenium are also low in some grains. The vitamin concentrations in seeds are highly variable. Seeds do not contain vitamin A (corn provides carotenoids), or vitamin D. Vitamin E and vitamin K levels are low to undetectable. Among the B vitamins riboflavin, niacin, and pantothenic acid are often low and vitamin B12 is not present. This means that the vitamins, minerals and trace elements lacking in the grain must given to the pigeons in some form or other. Many fanciers use spinach and shell grit, but this is still not enough to balance the nutritional requirements of the athletic pigeon. Nowadays most fanciers add vitamin and trace elements to the water once or twice a week and provide the minerals in powdered or block form ad lib.

I use Windsmore vitamins and an electrolyte poultry vitamin. I get the vitamins from Jedd's Pigeon Supply. I also use Red Cell, which is an iron rich horse vitamin. I purchase the Red Cell at a Farm Supply store. I also use apple cider vinegar and minced garlic. I buy these at the local grocery store.

VITAMIN A:

 

Action:

Indispensable in the formation of the sanguineous capillaries. Form leaves from pigments of the retina (eye).
Acts in the formation of all the epithelial coatings. It is used helping in infectious and antiparasitic diseases. Is also used as anti-stress substance and following the vaccinations.

Deficiency:

Sometimes it leads to the destruction of the eye (it is resembled to criza). Viscous exudate in the nasal graves. Patognomónicas are considered the nodules or white pustules as large as a pin head that are seen in post-mouth, pharynx, origin of the esophagus and stomach.

 

VITAMIN D
The organism animal synthesizes it from the ultra-violet rays, so its very important of the sun in the loft.

 

Action:

Its fundamental action is to promote the absorption and fixation of calcium and phosphorus in the skeleton.

Deficiency:

Deformation of the breastbone.
Fragile bones.
Eggs with thin and soft rind.
Fragile peak and soft nails.
Delay of the growth.
Problems in the plumage.
A prolonged deficiency leads to the " raquitismo " (rháchîtis = to meager)

 

VITAMIN E

 

Action:

It acts in the maintenance of the reproductive function of the birds. It increases the fertility of eggs.

Deficiency:

It can produce:
Encefalomacia: motor upheavals and ventral flexion of the head.
White muscular dystrophy, striae throughout muscular fibers of pectoral muscles.

 

VITAMIN K

 

Action:

It takes part in the normal process of the coagulation of the blood. Its used helping in the treatments of diseases that produce anaemia (coccidiosis, etc.)

Deficiency:

causes hemorrhages----> Anaemia

 

VITAMIN C:
It is practically the only vitamin that the organism of the birds can synthesize in sufficient amounts.

 

Action:

Its main action is to form and to maintain the intercellular material. Also it acts in the spare part of calcium and phosphorus.
Its used like antistress and helping in parasitic infectious diseases.

 

VITAMIN B1 Or TIAMINE:>

 

Action:

It is the anti-neuritic vitamin (antinervous)
Its also necessary in the metabolism of carbon hydrates.

Deficiency:

It can produce:
- Nervous symptom, paralysis of the legs and the muscles.
- Atrophy of the genital devices

 

VITAMIN B2 RIVOFLAVINE:

 

Deficiency:

diarrea
Delay in the growth
Paralysis of the legs, supports the tarsos and doubles the fingers inwards

 

VITAMIN B6 Or PIRIDOXINE:

 

Deficiency:

Anorexy (loss of appetite)
Delay in the growth
Nervous symptoms: spasmodic convulsions, jumps.

 

NICOTINIC ACID Or NICOTINAMIDE:

 

Action:

Essential in the metabolism of carbon hydrates (sugars)

Deficiency:

It can produce:
Inflammations in mouth, pharynx, and esophagus.
Inflammation of the knee and to hoop the legs.

 

BIOTINE:

 

Deficiency:

It can produce dermatitis in the legs (rough legs, with crack and necrosis)

 

FOLIC ACID:

 

Deficiency:

It can produce:
- Anaemia.
- Delay in the growth
- Problems in the plumage,
- PEROSIS: It is a joint deficiency with the lack of manganese (Mn).
Produces a landslide of the sinew of the gastronemious outside the bony pulley of the tarsius joint therefore the bones suffers a torsion outwards. (most of the times a single leg)

 

PANTOTENIC ACID:

 

Deficiency:

The symptoms are very difficult to separate of the symptoms caused by the deficiency of Biotine.

- Dermatitis
- Breakage of the pheaders
- Perosis
- Delay in the growth

 

VITAMIN B12 Or CIANOCOBALAMINE:

 

Action:

It is the so called antianemic vitamin. Along with Copper and the Cobalto, are indispensable in the formation of the elements of the blood (eritropoyesis)

Deficiency:

Delay in the growth
Anaemia
Upheavals in the moulting
Low in the fertility of eggs. It is important to say that all the vitamins of group B are less stable than the others (they oxidize quickly) for that reason must be used in amounts that are daily consumed and not to leave them in the water throughs until the other day.
It is also important to know that the vitamins of group B, act to each other interrelated, therefore the deficiency of one of them means that we must provide the called " B Complex ".

 

MINERAL SALTS

 

DEFINITION:

Indispensable substances for many processes of the animal organism. In the nature they are under different salts form. It is important to say that when we provide mineral complexes to the birds these regulate their ingestion according to their necessities.
Next some of the most important minerals and its main action within the organism of the birds:

SODIUM (Na)

It acts in the absorption of the water and its later elimination (diuresis)

CALCIUM (Ca) and PHOSFORO (P)

Are fundamental along with vitamin D in the formation of the bones

POTASSIUM (K)

Acts in the operation of the cardiac muscle (cardiac tone)
Also acts on the diuresis.

MAGNESIUM (Mg)

It is related intimately with Ca and P.

IODINE (I)

Is fundamental for the normal operation of the gland thyroid.

MANGANESE (MN)

Necessary for the growth and the reproduction. Its deficiency as we saw before causes PEROSIS

COPPER (Cu) and COBALT (Co)

Are fundamental together with the B12 vitamin, in the eritorpoyesis (this means formation of the elements of the blood: globules)

IRON (Fe)

Essential component and the hemoglobina of the blood.

 

AMINO ACIDS

 

DEFINITION:

They are substances that the animal organism synthesizes from ingested nitrogen, being these the base of the formation of proteins. (a protein is a chain of amino acids).
The essential amino acids are those that the organism does not synthesize in suitable amounts to maintain the growth or the normal nutrition, so they must appear in the diet that we give our birds.
Next I detail to the 10 essential amino acids and their requirements by pigeon and day:


(necessities per day and pigeon)

METIONINA

0.09 grs

 

LESINA

0.18 grs

VALINA

0.06 grs

LEUCINA

0.09 grs

ISOLEUCINA

0.055 grs

FENILALAGNINA

0.09 grs

TRIPTOFANO

0.02 grs

ARGININA

 

HISTIDINA

 

TREONINA

 

 

VITAMIN SUPPLEMENTS

By Dr Colin Walker BSc, BVSc, MRCVS, MACVSc (Avian health)

Vitamins - What are they?
Vitamins are chemical compounds that are natural components of food. Found in minute quantities, they are essential for normal metabolism and health. They are divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and K). Within these six main groups are several different sub-types. Each group has its own set of functions and when severely deficient in the diet, display their own set of characteristic deficiency symptoms. The effect on metabolism is proportional to the level of deficiency so that when deficiency is mild, the symptoms are vague and non-specific, such as poor performance or compromised health.

Vitamins are generally not made in the body in sufficient amounts to meet requirements and so must be taken in as a dietary source.

The six groups of vitamins are divided into two basic types. The water-soluble vitamins (B and C) are not stored in the body and so any deficiency in these tends quickly to have an effect. The fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are well stored in the liver and so daily intake is less critical.

Vitamins - What do they do?
Each vitamin has its own set of functions. Vitamin A is necessary for healthy skin and mucus membranes, ie the lining of the mouth, sinus and cloaca, etc. Vitamin B is actually a large group of 12 or more different compounds, eg thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), choline (B4), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), etc. They perform many vital functions. Being water-soluble, deficiency quickly develops if the birds are not eating. Vitamin C is a metabolic regulator. In most species of seed-eating birds, including pigeons, vitamin C is synthesised in the liver and there is no advantage in supplementation unless the bird becomes debilitated and is no longer able to make enough vitamin C, especially if the liver is damaged. Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the bowel into the body. Birds can make their own vitamin C if they have access to light. Vitamin E regulates many of the normal metabolic processes within the cell. Vitamin K is necessary for blood coagulation. It is found in green plants and can be produced by the normal bacteria in the birds’ bowel. It is in fact quite difficult to produce a vitamin K deficiency unless antibiotics have been overused and have killed all of the bacteria in the bowel or birds are prevented from eating their own droppings or probiotics are not used.

Everything in balance
In addition to there being adequate levels of vitamins in the diet, it is important that they are not given in overdose. For example, overdose of vitamin A interferes with the absorption of vitamin E and vitamin D3. In extreme overdose, 20 - 100 times the recommended dose, vitamin A can cause weight loss, decreased food intake, inflammation of the mouth and eyelids and decreased bone strength.

It is also important that vitamins are given in the correct proportion relative to each other. The most obvious example of a vitamin interrelationship is the effect of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins in which an excess of one will decrease the absorption of the others due to competition for absorption sites in the lining of the bowel. For this reason, it is necessary that all fat-soluble vitamins be balanced with respect to one another to ensure proper absorption of them all. Some vitamins interact directly in the metabolism of certain compounds. This means that if there is a deficiency in one, this would lead to increased requirements for the others. Conversely increased supplementation in one can mean that one of the others is proportionately low and therefore deficient.

Vitamins cannot only interact with each other but also with other substances such as amino acids (the building blocks off proteins) and minerals. The most significant relationship between vitamins and minerals is the relationship between calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3. It is obligatory for adequate vitamin D3 too be available for the proper absorption of both of these minerals to take place. Inadequate vitamin D3 levels in the body can lead to calcium deficiency symptoms in an otherwise calcium-adequate diet. Conversely, too much vitamin D3 can cause excessive absorption in a marginal diet. Another example is the relationship between vitamin E and selenium. These two do essentially the same job. If one is deficient, then the other can make up the difference. A similar thing happens with the vitamin niacin and the amino acid tryptophan. If there is a lot of tryptophan in the diet, then less niacin is required.

Vitamins are also affected by the levels of protein and fat in the diet and other dietary components. For example, a high-protein diet leads to increased requirements for some vitamins in the B group while a low fat /high starch diet leads to an increased demand for thiamine.



VITAMINS (Over used)

 

 

VITAMINS D3

http://www.racingbirds.com/vitD.html

 

 

VITAMINS WHAT ARE THEY?

Vitamins are chemical compounds that are natural components of food. Found in minute quantities, they are essential for normal metabolism and health. They are divided into six groups (A, B, C, D, E and K). Within these six main groups are several different sub-types. Each group has its own set of functions and when severely deficient in the diet, display their own set of characteristic deficiency symptoms. The effect on metabolism is proportional to the level of deficiency so that when deficiency is mild, the symptoms are vague and non-specific, such as poor performance or compromised health.

Vitamins are generally not made in the body in sufficient amounts to meet requirements and so must be taken in as a dietary source.

The six groups of vitamins are divided into two basic types. The water-soluble vitamins (B and C) are not stored in the body and so any deficiency in these tends quickly to have an effect. The fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E and K) are well stored in the liver and so daily intake is less critical.

Vitamins - What do they do?
Each vitamin has its own set of functions. Vitamin A is necessary for healthy skin and mucus membranes, ie the lining of the mouth, sinus and cloaca, etc. Vitamin B is actually a large group of 12 or more different compounds, eg thiamine (B1), riboflavin (B2), niacin (B3), choline (B4), pantothenic acid (B5), pyridoxine (B6), etc. They perform many vital functions. Being water-soluble, deficiency quickly develops if the birds are not eating. Vitamin C is a metabolic regulator. In most species of seed-eating birds, including pigeons, vitamin C is synthesised in the liver and there is no advantage in supplementation unless the bird becomes debilitated and is no longer able to make enough vitamin C, especially if the liver is damaged. Vitamin D is necessary for the absorption of calcium from the bowel into the body. Birds can make their own vitamin C if they have access to light. Vitamin E regulates many of the normal metabolic processes within the cell. Vitamin K is necessary for blood coagulation. It is found in green plants and can be produced by the normal bacteria in the birds’ bowel. It is in fact quite difficult to produce a vitamin K deficiency unless antibiotics have been overused and have killed all of the bacteria in the bowel or birds are prevented from eating their own droppings or probiotics are not used.

Everything in balance
In addition to there being adequate levels of vitamins in the diet, it is important that they are not given in overdose. For example, overdose of vitamin A interferes with the absorption of vitamin E and vitamin D3. In extreme overdose, 20 - 100 times the recommended dose, vitamin A can cause weight loss, decreased food intake, inflammation of the mouth and eyelids and decreased bone strength.

It is also important that vitamins are given in the correct proportion relative to each other. The most obvious example of a vitamin interrelationship is the effect of the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins in which an excess of one will decrease the absorption of the others due to competition for absorption sites in the lining of the bowel. For this reason, it is necessary that all fat-soluble vitamins be balanced with respect to one another to ensure proper absorption of them all. Some vitamins interact directly in the metabolism of certain compounds. This means that if there is a deficiency in one, this would lead to increased requirements for the others. Conversely increased supplementation in one can mean that one of the others is proportionately low and therefore deficient.

Vitamins cannot only interact with each other but also with other substances such as amino acids (the building blocks off proteins) and minerals. The most significant relationship between vitamins and minerals is the relationship between calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D3. It is obligatory for adequate vitamin D3 too be available for the proper absorption of both of these minerals to take place. Inadequate vitamin D3 levels in the body can lead to calcium deficiency symptoms in an otherwise calcium-adequate diet. Conversely, too much vitamin D3 can cause excessive absorption in a marginal diet. Another example is the relationship between vitamin E and selenium. These two do essentially the same job. If one is deficient, then the other can make up the difference. A similar thing happens with the vitamin niacin and the amino acid tryptophan. If there is a lot of tryptophan in the diet, then less niacin is required.

Vitamins are also affected by the levels of protein and fat in the diet and other dietary components. For example, a high-protein diet leads to increased requirements for some vitamins in the B group while a low fat /high starch diet leads to an increased demand for thiamine.



 

 

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